"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the indication for the short-acting beta-agonist albuterol sulfate inhalation powder (ProAir RespiClick, Teva) to children aged 4 to 11 years, the company announced today.
Mechanism Of Action
Umeclidinium is a long-acting, antimuscarinic agent, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through the inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo studies, prevention of methacholine and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of umeclidinium is predominantly a site-specific effect.
QTc interval prolongation was studied in a double-blind, multiple dose, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover trial in 86 healthy subjects. Following repeat doses of umeclidinium 500 mcg once daily (8 times the recommended dosage) for 10 days, umeclidinium does not prolong QTc to any clinically relevant extent.
Linear pharmacokinetics was observed for umeclidinium (62.5 to 500 mcg).
Umeclidinium plasma levels may not predict therapeutic effect. Following inhaled administration of umeclidinium in healthy subjects, Cmax occurred at 5 to 15 minutes. Umeclidinium is mostly absorbed from the lung after inhaled doses with minimum contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled INCRUSE ELLIPTA, steady state was achieved within 14 days with 1.8-fold accumulation.
Following intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution was 86 L. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 89%.
In vitro data showed that umeclidinium is primarily metabolized by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (e.g., glucuronidation), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
Following intravenous dosing with radiolabeled umeclidinium, mass balance showed 58% of the radiolabel in the feces and 22% in the urine. The excretion of the drug-related material in the feces following intravenous dosing indicated elimination in the bile. Following oral dosing to healthy male subjects, radiolabel recovered in feces was 92% of the total dose and that in urine was less than 1% of the total dose, suggesting negligible oral absorption. The effective half-life after once daily dosing is 11 hours.
Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed no evidence of a clinically significant effect of age (40 to 93 years) (see Figure 1), gender (69% male) (see Figure 1), inhaled corticosteroid use (48%), or weight (34 to 161 kg) on systemic exposure of umeclidinium. In addition, there was no evidence of a clinically significant effect of race.
Hepatic Impairment: The impact of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of INCRUSE ELLIPTA has been evaluated in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 7-9). There was no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to umeclidinium (Cmax and AUC) (see Figure 1). There was no evidence of altered protein binding in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. INCRUSE ELLIPTA has not been evaluated in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.
Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of INCRUSE ELLIPTA has been evaluated in subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min). There was no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to umeclidinium (Cmax and AUC) (see Figure 1). There was no evidence of altered protein binding in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects.
Figure 1: Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on
the Systemic Exposure of Umeclidinium
Umeclidinium and P-glycoprotein Transporter: Umeclidinium is a substrate of P-gp. The effect of the moderate P-gp transporter inhibitor verapamil (240 mg once daily) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium was assessed in healthy subjects. No effect on umeclidinium Cmax was observed; however, an approximately 1.4-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed (see Figure 1).
Umeclidinium and Cytochrome P450 2D6: In vitro metabolism of umeclidinium is mediated primarily by CYP2D6. However, no clinically meaningful difference in systemic exposure to umeclidinium (500 mcg) (8 times the approved dose) was observed following repeat daily inhaled dosing to normal (ultrarapid, extensive, and intermediate metabolizers) and CYP2D6 poor metabolizer subjects (see Figure 1).
The safety and efficacy of umeclidinium 62.5 mcg were evaluated in 3 dose-ranging trials, 2 placebo-controlled clinical trials (one 12-week trial and one 24-week trial), and a 12-month long-term safety trial. The efficacy of INCRUSE ELLIPTA is based primarily on the dose-ranging trials in 624 subjects with COPD and the 2 placebo-controlled confirmatory trials in 1,738 subjects with COPD.
Dose selection for umeclidinium in COPD was supported by a 7-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating 4 doses of umeclidinium (15.6 to 125 mcg) or placebo dosed once daily in the morning in 163 subjects with COPD. A dose ordering was observed, with the 62.5- and 125-mcg doses demonstrating larger improvements in FEV1 over 24 hours compared with the lower doses of 15.6 and 31.25 mcg (Figure 2).
The differences in trough FEV1 from baseline after 7 days for placebo and the 15.6-, 31.25-, 62.5-, and 125-mcg doses were -74 mL (95% CI: -118, -31), 38 mL (95% CI: -6, 83), 27 mL (95% CI: -18, 72), 49 mL (95% CI: 6, 93), and 109 mL (95% CI: 65, 152), respectively. Two additional dose-ranging trials in subjects with COPD demonstrated minimal additional benefit at doses above 125 mcg. The dose-ranging results supported the evaluation of 2 doses of umeclidinium, 62.5 and 125 mcg, in the confirmatory COPD trials to further assess dose response.
Evaluations of dosing interval by comparing once- and twice-daily dosing supported selection of a once-daily dosing interval for further evaluation in the confirmatory COPD trials.
Figure 2: Adjusted Mean Change From Baseline in
Post-Dose Serial FEV1 (mL) on Days 1 and 7
The clinical development program for INCRUSE ELLIPTA included 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials in subjects with COPD designed to evaluate the efficacy of INCRUSE ELLIPTA on lung function. Trial 1 was a 24-week placebo-controlled trial, and Trial 2 was a 12-week placebo-controlled trial. These trials treated subjects that had a clinical diagnosis of COPD, were 40 years of age or older, had a history of smoking greater than or equal to 10 pack-years, had a post-albuterol FEV1 less than or equal to 70% of predicted normal values, had a ratio of FEV1/FVC of less than 0.7, and had a Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) score greater than or equal to 2. Subjects in Trial 1 had a mean age of 63 years and an average smoking history of 46 pack-years, with 50% identified as current smokers. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 was 47% (range: 13% to 74%), the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.47 (range: 0.20 to 0.74), and the mean percent reversibility was 15% (range: -35% to 109%). Baseline demographics and lung function for subjects in Trial 2 were similar to those in Trial 1.
Trial 1 evaluated umeclidinium 62.5 mcg and placebo. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in trough (predose) FEV1 at Day 169 (defined as the mean of the FEV1 values obtained at 23 and 24 hours after the previous dose on Day 168) compared with placebo. INCRUSE ELLIPTA 62.5 mcg demonstrated a larger increase in mean change from baseline in trough (predose) FEV1 relative to placebo (see Table 2). Similar results were obtained from Trial 2.
Table 2: Least Squares (LS)
Mean Change From Baseline in Trough FEV1 (mL) at Day 169 in the Intent-to-Treat
Population (Trial 1)
|Treatment||n||Trough FEV1 (mL) at Day 169|
|Difference From Placebo (95% CI)
n = 280
|INCRUSE ELLIPTA||n = 418||115 (76, 155)|
|n = Number in intent-to-treat population.|
Serial spirometric evaluations throughout the 24-hour dosing interval were performed in a subset of subjects (n = 54, umeclidinium 62.5 mcg; n = 36, placebo) at Days 1, 84, and 168 in Trial 1, and for all patients at Days 1 and 84 in Trial 2. Results from Trial 1 at Day 1 and Day 168 are shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Least Squares (LS) Mean Change From Baseline
in FEV1 (mL) Over Time (0-24 hr) on Days 1 and 168 (Trial 1 Subset Population)
In Trial 1, the mean peak FEV1 (over the first 6 hours relative to baseline) at Day 1 and at Day 168 for the group receiving umeclidinium 62.5 mcg compared with placebo was 126 and 130 mL, respectively.
Health-related quality of life was measured using St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Umeclidinium demonstrated an improvement in mean SGRQ total score compared with placebo treatment at Day 168: -4.69 (95% CI: -7.07,-2.31). The proportion of patients with a clinically meaningful decrease (defined as a decrease of at least 4 units from baseline) at Week 24 was greater for INCRUSE ELLIPTA 62.5 mcg (42%; 172/410) compared with placebo (31%; 86/274).
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/7/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Incruse Ellipta Information
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