Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Flu (influenza, conventional, H1N1, H3N2, and bird flu [H5N1]) facts
- What is influenza?
- What are the causes of the flu?
- What are flu symptoms in adults and in children?
- How is the flu diagnosed?
- What is the key to flu prevention?
- Are there any flu shot or nasal spray vaccine side effects in adults or in children?
- Why should the influenza vaccine be taken every year?
- What are some treatments an individual can do at home for the flu?
- When should a person go to the emergency department for the flu?
- Who should receive the flu vaccine, and who has the highest risk factors? When should someone get the flu shot?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) and complications for patients who get the flu?
- What is the bird (avian) flu?
- Do antiviral agents protect people from the flu?
- Is it safe to get a flu shot that contains thimerosal?
- Where can I find additional information about the flu?
- Slideshow: Finding Relief for Your Cough
- Pictures of Natural Cold & Flu Remedies - Slideshow
- Pictures of 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu - Slideshow
Where can I find additional information about the flu?
During a flu pandemic, guidelines and situations can change rapidly. People are advised to be aware that several sources are available to them to keep current with developments. The web sites below are frequently updated, especially when a pandemic is declared. The first web site contains an update written for the public and caregivers; the government and WHO sites provide detailed information that are updated as guidelines and developments occur.
Lambert, L., and Fauci, A. "Influenza Vaccines for the Future." New Eng. J. Med. 361.21 (2010): 2036-2044.
Monto, A.S., Ohmit, S.E., Petrie, J.G., Johnson, E., Truscon, R., Teich, E., Rotthoff, J., Boulton, M., Victor, J.C. "Comparative Efficacy of Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines." N Engl J Med 361 Sept. 24, 2009: 1260.
Perez-Padilla, R., de la Rosa-Zamboni, D., Ponce de Leon, S.P., Hernandez, M., Quinones-Falconi, F., Bautista, E., Ramirez-Venegas, A., Rojas-Serrano, J., Ormsby, C.E., Corrales, A., Higuera, A., Mondragon, E., Cordova-Villalobos, J.A. "Pneumonia and Respiratory Failure from Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico." N Engl J Med 361 Aug. 13, 2009: 680.
Switzerland. World Health Organization. "Cumulative number of confirmed human cases for avian influenza A(H5N1) reported to WHO, 2003-2014." Jan. 24, 2014. <http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Inactivated Influenza Vaccine." July 26, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flu.pdf>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu): Thimerosal and 2011-2012 Seasonal Flu Vaccines." Aug. 18, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/thimerosal.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu): Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians." Sept. 4, 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu): Use of Antivirals." Sept. 1, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/antiviral-use-influenza.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2011-2012 Trivalent Influenza Vaccine Data From the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)." <http://vaers.hhs.gov/resources/SeasonalFluSummary_2011-2012.pdf>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)." Oct. 12, 2009. <http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/>.
United States. Flu.gov. "H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)." <http://www.flu.gov/about_the_flu/h5n1/>.
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