Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Flu (influenza, conventional, H1N1, H3N2, and bird flu [H5N1]) facts
- What is flu (influenza)?
- Flu vs. cold
- Flu vs. food poisoning
- What are the causes of the flu (influenza)?
- When does flu season begin and end?
- What are flu (influenza) symptoms in adults and in children?
- Does a child's first flu infection help to determine the patient's lifelong risk to other viruses?
- What is the incubation period for the flu?
- How long is the flu contagious, and how long does the flu last?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose the flu (influenza)?
- How does flu spread?
- What is the key to flu (influenza) prevention?
- Are there any flu shot or nasal spray vaccine side effects in adults or in children?
- How effective is the flu vaccine?
- Why should the flu (influenza) vaccine be taken every year?
- What are some flu treatments an individual can do at home (home remedies)?
- What types of doctors treat the flu?
- What medications treat the flu?
- What can people eat when they have the flu?
- When should a person go to the emergency department for the flu?
- Who should receive the flu vaccine, and who has the highest risk factors? When should someone get the flu shot?
- What is the prognosis for patients who get the flu? What are possible complications of the flu?
- Can the flu be deadly?
- What is the bird (avian) flu?
- Do antiviral agents protect people from the flu?
- Is it safe to get a flu shot that contains thimerosal?
- Where can people find additional information about the flu?
- Slideshow: Finding Relief for Your Cough
- Pictures of Natural Cold & Flu Remedies - Slideshow
- Pictures of 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu - Slideshow
What is the prognosis for patients who get the flu? What are possible complications of the flu?
In general, the majority (about 90%-95%) of people who get the disease feel terrible (see symptoms) but recover with no problems. People with suppressed immune systems historically have worse outcomes than uncompromised individuals; current data suggest that pregnant individuals, children under 2 years of age, young adults, and individuals with any immune compromise or debilitation are likely to have a worse prognosis. Complications from the flu may worsen medical conditions such as asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes. Other complications may include ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, pneumonia, and even death. In most outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics, the mortality rates are highest in the older population (usually above 50 years old). Complications of any flu virus infection, although relatively rare, may resemble severe viral pneumonia or the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a coronavirus strain) outbreak in 2002-2003, in which the disease spread to about 10 countries with over 7,000 cases, over 700 deaths, and had a 10% mortality rate.
Can the flu be deadly?
Yes. However, associated deaths per year depend upon the virulence of the particular strain of virus that is circulating. That means for any given year, the likelihood of dying from the flu varies according to the specific infecting viruses. For example, from 1976-2007 (the most reliable available data according to the CDC), deaths associated with the flu range from a low of about 3,000 per year to a high of about 49,000 per year. The CDC estimates about 36,000 deaths/year in the U.S. in recent years. The 1918 flu pandemic (1918-1919) was estimated to cause 20-50 million deaths worldwide.
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