"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Opsumit (macitentan), a new drug to treat adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a chronic, progressive and debilitating disease that can lead to death or the need for lung transpla"...
Mechanism of Action
Nitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide selectively dilates the pulmonary vasculature, and because of efficient scavenging by hemoglobin, has minimal effect on the systemic vasculature.
INOmax appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better ventilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios.
Effects on Pulmonary Vascular Tone in PPHN
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, INOmax improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2).
The pharmacokinetics of nitric oxide has been studied in adults.
Uptake and Distribution
Nitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation. Most of it traverses the pulmonary capillary bed where it combines with hemoglobin that is 60% to 100% oxygen-saturated. At this level of oxygen saturation, nitric oxide combines predominantly with oxyhemoglobin to produce methemoglobin and nitrate. At low oxygen saturation, nitric oxide can combine with deoxyhemoglobin to transiently form nitrosylhemoglobin, which is converted to nitrogen oxides and methemoglobin upon exposure to oxygen. Within the pulmonary system, nitric oxide can combine with oxygen and water to produce nitrogen dioxide and nitrite, respectively, which interact with oxyhemoglobin to produce methemoglobin and nitrate. Thus, the end products of nitric oxide that enter the systemic circulation are predominantly methemoglobin and nitrate.
Methemoglobin disposition has been investigated as a function of time and nitric oxide exposure concentration in neonates with respiratory failure. The methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration-time profiles during the first 12 hours of exposure to 0, 5, 20, and 80 ppm INOmax are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Methemoglobin Concentration-Time Profiles
Neonates Inhaling 0, 5, 20 or 80 ppm INOmax
Methemoglobin concentrations increased during the first 8 hours of nitric oxide exposure. The mean methemoglobin level remained below 1% in the placebo group and in the 5 ppm and 20 ppm INOmax groups, but reached approximately 5% in the 80 ppm INOmax group. Methemoglobin levels > 7% were attained only in patients receiving 80 ppm, where they comprised 35% of the group. The average time to reach peak methemoglobin was 10 ± 9 (SD) hours (median, 8 hours) in these 13 patients, but one patient did not exceed 7% until 40 hours.
Nitrate has been identified as the predominant nitric oxide metabolite excreted in the urine, accounting for > 70% of the nitric oxide dose inhaled. Nitrate is cleared from the plasma by the kidney at rates approaching the rate of glomerular filtration.
Treatment of Hypoxic Respiratory Failure (HRF)
The efficacy of INOmax has been investigated in term and near-term newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure resulting from a variety of etiologies. Inhalation of INOmax reduces the oxygenation index (OI= mean airway pressure in cm H2O × fraction of inspired oxygen concentration [FiO2]× 100 divided by systemic arterial concentration in mm Hg [PaO2]) and increases PaO2 [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study (NINOS) was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in 235 neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure. The objective of the study was to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide would reduce the occurrence of death and/or initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a prospectively defined cohort of term or near-term neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional therapy. Hypoxic respiratory failure was caused by meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS; 49%), pneumonia/sepsis (21%), idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN; 17%), or respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; 11%). Infants ≤ 14 days of age (mean, 1.7 days) with a mean PaO2 of 46 mm Hg and a mean oxygenation index (OI) of 43 cm H2O / mm Hg were initially randomized to receive 100% O2 with (n=114) or without (n=121) 20 ppm nitric oxide for up to 14 days. Response to study drug was defined as a change from baseline in PaO2 30 minutes after starting treatment (full response = > 20 mm Hg, partial = 10–20 mm Hg, no response = < 10 mm Hg). Neonates with a less than full response were evaluated for a response to 80 ppm nitric oxide or control gas. The primary results from the NINOS study are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Summary of Clinical Results from NINOS Study
|Death or ECMO*,†||
|* Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
† Death or need for ECMO was the study's primary end point
Although the incidence of death by 120 days of age was similar in both groups (NO, 14%; control, 17%), significantly fewer infants in the nitric oxide group required ECMO compared with controls (39% vs. 55%, p = 0.014). The combined incidence of death and/or initiation of ECMO showed a significant advantage for the nitric oxide treated group (46% vs. 64%, p = 0.006). The nitric oxide group also had significantly greater increases in PaO2 and greater decreases in the OI and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient than the control group (p < 0.001 for all parameters). Significantly more patients had at least a partial response to the initial administration of study drug in the nitric oxide group (66%) than the control group (26%, p < 0.001). Of the 125 infants who did not respond to 20 ppm nitric oxide or control, similar percentages of NO-treated (18%) and control (20%) patients had at least a partial response to 80 ppm nitric oxide for inhalation or control drug, suggesting a lack of additional benefit for the higher dose of nitric oxide. No infant had study drug discontinued for toxicity. Inhaled nitric oxide had no detectable effect on mortality. The adverse events collected in the NINOS trial occurred at similar incidence rates in both treatment groups [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Follow-up exams were performed at 18–24 months for the infants enrolled in this trial. In the infants with available follow-up, the two treatment groups were similar with respect to their mental, motor, audiologic, or neurologic evaluations.
This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of 186 term and near-term neonates with pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether INOmax would reduce the receipt of ECMO in these patients. Hypoxic respiratory failure was caused by MAS (35%), idiopathic PPHN (30%), pneumonia/sepsis (24%), or RDS (8%). Patients with a mean PaO2 of 54 mm Hg and a mean OI of 44 cm H2O / mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive either 20 ppm INOmax (n=97) or nitrogen gas (placebo; n=89) in addition to their ventilatory support. Patients who exhibited a PaO2 > 60 mm Hg and a pH < 7.55 were weaned to 5 ppm INOmax or placebo. The primary results from the CINRGI study are presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Summary of Clinical Results from CINRGI Study
|* Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
† ECMO was the primary end point of this study
Significantly fewer neonates in the INOmax group required ECMO compared to the control group (31% vs. 57%, p < 0.001). While the number of deaths were similar in both groups (INOmax, 3%; placebo, 6%), the combined incidence of death and/or receipt of ECMO was decreased in the INOmax group (33% vs. 58%, p < 0.001).
In addition, the INOmax group had significantly improved oxygenation as measured by PaO2, OI, and alveolar-arterial gradient (p < 0.001 for all parameters). Of the 97 patients treated with INOmax, 2 (2%) were withdrawn from study drug due to methemoglobin levels > 4%. The frequency and number of adverse events reported were similar in the two study groups [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In clinical trials, reduction in the need for ECMO has not been demonstrated with the use of inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
Ineffective in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
In a randomized, double-blind, parallel, multicenter study, 385 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with pneumonia (46%), surgery (33%), multiple trauma (26%), aspiration (23%), pulmonary contusion (18%), and other causes, with PaO2/FiO2 < 250 mm Hg despite optimal oxygenation and ventilation, received placebo (n=193) or INOmax (n=192), 5 ppm, for 4 hours to 28 days or until weaned because of improvements in oxygenation. Despite acute improvements in oxygenation, there was no effect of INOmax on the primary endpoint of days alive and off ventilator support. These results were consistent with outcome data from a smaller dose ranging study of nitric oxide (1.25 to 80 ppm). INOmax is not indicated for use in ARDS.
Ineffective in Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
The safety and efficacy of INOmax for the prevention of chronic lung disease [bronchopulmonary dysplasia, (BPD)] in neonates ≤ 34 weeks gestational age requiring respiratory support has been studied in three large, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in a total of 2,149 preterm infants. Of these, 1,068 received placebo, and 1,081 received inhaled nitric oxide at doses ranging from 5-20 ppm, for treatment periods of 7-24 days duration. The primary endpoint for these studies was alive and without BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). The need for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks PMA served as a surrogate endpoint for the presence of BPD. Overall, efficacy for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants was not established. There were no meaningful differences between treatment groups with regard to deaths, methemoglobin levels, or adverse events commonly observed in premature infants, including intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity. The use of INOmax for prevention of BPD in preterm neonates ≤ 34 weeks gestational age is not indicated.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/20/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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