Siamak T. Nabili, MD, MPH
Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- What is insomnia?
- What causes insomnia?
- What are other causes of insomnia?
- What are the risk factors for insomnia?
- What are the symptoms of insomnia?
- When should I call the doctor about insomnia?
- How is insomnia diagnosed?
- How is insomnia treated?
- What are non-medical treatments for insomnia?
- What is sleep hygiene?
- How can stimulus control help with insomnia?
- What is sleep restriction?
- What medications are used to treat insomnia?
- What is the outlook for insomnia?
- Insomnia At A Glance
- Find a local Sleep Specialist in your town
What are other causes of insomnia?
Besides the conditions listed previously, there are other types of insomnia that are not necessarily linked to an underlying condition. Some of the common types of insomnia are listed in this section.
Psychophysiological insomnia or primary insomnia is a type of insomnia in which learned behaviors prevent sleep. Individuals with this condition are unable to relax their minds (racing thoughts) and have an increased mental function when they try to fall sleep. This may become a long-term issue, and going to bed becomes associated with an increased level of anxiety and mental arousal, leading to chronic insomnia. This condition may be present in about 15% of people who undergo formal sleep studies for evaluation of chronic insomnia.
Idiopathic insomnia (without an obvious cause) (childhood onset insomnia or life-long insomnia) is a less common condition (1% of young adults or adolescents) that starts in childhood and may continue into adulthood. These individuals have difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep and have chronic daytime fatigue. Other more common conditions need to be evaluated and ruled out before this diagnosis is made. This condition may run in families.
Paradoxical insomnia is also called subjective insomnia or sleep state misconception. In this condition, individuals may report and complain of insomnia;, however, they would have a normal pattern of sleep if they were to have a formal overnight sleep study done.
What are the risk factors for insomnia?
There are no specific risk factors for insomnia because of the variety of underlying causes that may lead to insomnia. The medical and psychiatric conditions listed earlier may be considered risk factors for insomnia if untreated or difficult to treat. Some of the emotional and environmental situations that were also mentioned above may act as risk factor for insomnia.
Viewers share their comments
Find out what women really need.