"Dec. 18, 2012 -- People who can't get their high blood pressure down with drugs may be helped by a new procedure that deactivates overactive nerves in the kidneys, a small study shows.
The procedure is already available in Europe and "...
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Details with Side Effects
Minimize the risk of hyperkalemia with proper patient selection and monitoring, and avoidance of certain concomitant medications [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Monitor patients for the development of hyperkalemia until the effect of INSPRA is established. Patients who develop hyperkalemia ( > 5.5 mEq/L) may continue INSPRA therapy with proper dose adjustment. Dose reduction decreases potassium levels [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
The rates of hyperkalemia increase with declining renal function [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients with hypertension who have serum creatinine levels > 2.0 mg/dL (males) or > 1.8 mg/dL (females) or creatinine clearance ≤ 50 mL/min should not be treated with INSPRA [see CONTRAINDICTIONS]. Patients with CHF post-MI who have serum creatinine levels > 2.0 mg/dL (males) or > 1.8 mg/dL (females) or creatinine clearance ≤ 50mL/min should be treated with INSPRA with caution.
Diabetic patients with CHF post-MI should also be treated with caution, especially those with proteinuria. The subset of patients in the EPHESUS study with both diabetes and proteinuria on the baseline urinalysis had increased rates of hyperkalemia compared to patients with either diabetes or proteinuria [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The risk of hyperkalaemia may increase when eplerenone is used in combination with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Impaired Hepatic Function
Mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment did not increase the incidence of hyperkalemia. In 16 subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment who received 400 mg of eplerenone, no elevations of serum potassium above 5.5 mEq/L were observed. The mean increase in serum potassium was 0.12 mEq/L in patients with hepatic impairment and 0.13 mEq/L in normal controls. The use of INSPRA in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been evaluated [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Impaired Renal Function
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Eplerenone was non-genotoxic in a battery of assays including in vitro bacterial mutagenesis (Ames test in Salmonella spp. and E. Coli), in vitro mammalian cell mutagenesis (mouse lymphoma cells), in vitro chromosomal aberration (Chinese hamster ovary cells), in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus formation, and in vivo/ex vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat liver.
There was no drug-related tumor response in heterozygous P53 deficient mice when tested for 6 months at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg/day (systemic AUC exposures up to 9 times the exposure in humans receiving the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose). Statistically significant increases in benign thyroid tumors were observed after 2 years in both male and female rats when administered eplerenone 250 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested) and in male rats only at 75 mg/kg/day. These dosages provided systemic AUC exposures approximately 2 to 12 times higher than the average human therapeutic exposure at 100 mg/day. Repeat dose administration of eplerenone to rats increases the hepatic conjugation and clearance of thyroxin, which results in increased levels of TSH by a compensatory mechanism. Drugs that have produced thyroid tumors by this rodent-specific mechanism have not shown a similar effect in humans.
Male rats treated with eplerenone at 1000 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks (AUC 17 times that at the 100 mg/day human therapeutic dose) had decreased weights of seminal vesicles and epididymides and slightly decreased fertility. Dogs administered eplerenone at dosages of 15 mg/kg/day and higher (AUC 5 times that at the 100 mg/day human therapeutic dose) had dose-related prostate atrophy. The prostate atrophy was reversible after daily treatment for 1 year at 100 mg/kg/day. Dogs with prostate atrophy showed no decline in libido, sexual performance, or semen quality. Testicular weight and histology were not affected by eplerenone in any test animal species at any dosage.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. INSPRA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Embryo-fetal development studies were conducted with doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day in rats and 300 mg/kg/day in rabbits (exposures up to 32 and 31 times the human AUC for the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose, respectively). No teratogenic effects were seen in rats or rabbits, although decreased body weight in maternal rabbits and increased rabbit fetal resorptions and post-implantation loss were observed at the highest administered dosage. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, INSPRA should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
The concentration of eplerenone in human breast milk after oral administration is unknown. However, preclinical data show that eplerenone and/or metabolites are present in rat breast milk (0.85:1 [milk:plasma] AUC ratio) obtained after a single oral dose. Peak concentrations in plasma and milk were obtained from 0.5 to 1 hour after dosing. Rat pups exposed by this route developed normally. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the unknown potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
In a 10-week study of 304 hypertensive pediatric patients age 4 to 17 years treated with INSPRA up to 100 mg per day, doses that produced exposure similar to that in adults, INSPRA did not lower blood pressure effectively. In this study and in a 1-year pediatric safety study in 149 patients, the incidence of reported adverse events was similar to that of adults.
INSPRA has not been studied in hypertensive patients less than 4 years old because the study in older pediatric patients did not demonstrate effectiveness.
INSPRA has not been studied in pediatric patients with heart failure.
Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction
Of the total number of patients in EPHESUS, 3340 (50%) were 65 and over, while 1326 (20%) were 75 and over. Patients greater than 75 years did not appear to benefit from the use of INSPRA. [See Clinical Studies.]
No differences in overall incidence of adverse events were observed between elderly and younger patients. However, due to age-related decreases in creatinine clearance, the incidence of laboratory-documented hyperkalemia was increased in patients 65 and older [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Of the total number of subjects in clinical hypertension studies of INSPRA, 1123 (23%) were 65 and over, while 212 (4%) were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly subjects and younger subjects.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/3/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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