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Insulin Resistance (cont.)

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What causes insulin resistance?

There are several causes for insulin resistance, and genetic factors (inherited component) are usually significant. Some medications can contribute to insulin resistance. In addition, insulin resistance is often seen with the following conditions:

What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the type of diabetes that occurs later in life or with obesity at any age. Insulin resistance precedes the development of type 2 diabetes, sometimes by years. In individuals who will ultimately develop type 2 diabetes, it has been shown that blood glucose and insulin levels are normal for many years, until at some point in time, insulin resistance develops.

At this point, high insulin levels are often associated with central obesity, cholesterol abnormalities, and/or high blood pressure (hypertension). When these disease processes occur together, it is called the metabolic syndrome.

One action of insulin is to cause the body's cells (particularly the muscle and fat) to remove and use glucose from the blood. This is one way by which insulin controls the level of glucose in blood. Insulin has this effect on the cells by binding to insulin receptors on the surface of the cells. You can think of it as insulin "knocking on the doors" of muscle and fat cells. The cells hear the knock, open up, and let glucose in to be used. With insulin resistance, the muscles don't hear the knock (they are resistant). So, the pancreas is notified that it needs to make more insulin, which increases the level of insulin in the blood and causes a louder knock.

The resistance of the cells continues to increase over time. As long as the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, blood glucose levels remain normal. When the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin, the blood glucose levels begin to rise. Initially, this happens after meals - when glucose levels are at their highest and more insulin is needed - but eventually while fasting too (for example, upon waking in the morning). When blood sugar rises abnormally above certain levels, type 2 diabetes is present.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/12/2014

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Source: MedicineNet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/insulin_resistance/article.htm

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