Recommended Topic Related To:

Intelence

"Increasing HIV prevention and treatment options make it more important than ever to get tested and know your status.

September 27 is National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, a time to reflect on the heavy toll of HIV among gay and bis"...

Intelence

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Etravirine is an antiviral drug [see Microbiology].

Pharmacodynamics

Effects on Electrocardiogram

In a randomized, double-blind, active, and placebo-controlled crossover study, 41 healthy subjects were administered INTELENCE® 200 mg twice daily, INTELENCE® 400 mg once daily, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. After 8 days of dosing, etravirine did not prolong the QT interval. The maximum mean (upper 1-sided 95% CI) baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF were 0.6 ms (3.3 ms) for 200 mg twice daily and -1.0 ms (2.5 ms) for 400 mg once daily dosing regimens.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics in Adults

The pharmacokinetic properties of INTELENCE® were determined in healthy adult subjects and in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adult and pediatric subjects. The systemic exposures (AUC) to etravirine were lower in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy subjects.

Table 4: Population Pharmacokinetic Estimates of Etravirine 200 mg twice daily in HIV-1-Infected Adult Subjects (Integrated Data from Phase 3 Trials at Week 48)*

Parameter Etravirine 200 mg twice daily
N = 575
AUC12h (ng•h/mL)
  Geometric Mean ± Standard Deviation 4522 ± 4710
  Median (Range) 4380 (458 - 59084)
C0h (ng/mL)
  Geometric Mean ± Standard Deviation 297 ± 391
  Median (Range) 298 (2 - 4852)
* All HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in Phase 3 clinical trials received darunavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily as part of their background regimen. Therefore, the pharmacokinetic parameter estimates shown in Table 4 account for reductions in the pharmacokinetic parameters of etravirine due to co-administration of INTELENCE® with darunavir/ritonavir.
Note: The median protein binding adjusted EC50 for MT4 cells infected with HIV-1/IIIB in vitro equals 4 ng per mL.

Absorption and Bioavailability

Following oral administration, etravirine was absorbed with a Tmax of about 2.5 to 4 hours. The absolute oral bioavailability of INTELENCE® is unknown. In healthy subjects, the absorption of etravirine is not affected by co-administration of oral ranitidine or omeprazole, drugs that increase gastric pH.

Effects of Food on Oral Absorption

The systemic exposure (AUC) to etravirine was decreased by about 50% when INTELENCE® was administered under fasting conditions, as compared to when INTELENCE® was administered following a meal. Therefore, INTELENCE® should always be taken following a meal. Within the range of meals studied, the systemic exposures to etravirine were similar. The total caloric content of the various meals evaluated ranged from 345 kilocalories (17 grams fat) to 1160 kilocalories (70 grams fat) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Distribution

Etravirine is about 99.9% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin (99.6%) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (97.66% to 99.02%) in vitro. The distribution of etravirine into compartments other than plasma (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid, genital tract secretions) has not been evaluated in humans.

Metabolism

In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes (HLMs) indicate that etravirine primarily undergoes metabolism by CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzymes. The major metabolites, formed by methyl hydroxylation of the dimethylbenzonitrile moiety, were at least 90% less active than etravirine against wild-type HIV in cell culture.

Elimination

After single dose oral administration of 800 mg 14C-etravirine, 93.7% and 1.2% of the administered dose of 14Cetravirine was recovered in the feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged etravirine accounted for 81.2% to 86.4% of the administered dose in feces. Unchanged etravirine was not detected in urine. The mean (± standard deviation) terminal elimination half-life of etravirine was about 41 (± 20) hours.

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Etravirine is primarily metabolized by the liver. The steady state pharmacokinetic parameters of etravirine were similar after multiple dose administration of INTELENCE® to subjects with normal hepatic function (16 subjects), mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, 8 subjects), and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B, 8 subjects). The effect of severe hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of etravirine has not been evaluated.

Hepatitis B and/or Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of the TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 trials showed reduced clearance for etravirine in HIV-1-infected subjects with hepatitis B and/or C virus co-infection. Based upon the safety profile of INTELENCE® [see ADVERSE REACTIONS], no dose adjustment is necessary in patients co-infected with hepatitis B and/or C virus.

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of etravirine have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. The results from a mass balance study with 14C-etravirine showed that less than 1.2% of the administered dose of etravirine is excreted in the urine as metabolites. No unchanged drug was detected in the urine. As etravirine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Gender

No significant pharmacokinetic differences have been observed between males and females.

Race

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of etravirine in HIV-infected subjects did not show an effect of race on exposure to etravirine.

Geriatric Patients

Population pharmacokinetic analysis in HIV-infected subjects showed that etravirine pharmacokinetics are not considerably different within the age range (18 to 77 years) evaluated [see Use In Specific Populations].

Pediatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of etravirine in 101 treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects, 6 years to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 16 kg showed that the administered weight-based dosages (approximately 5.2 mg per kg twice daily up to the adult recommended doses) resulted in etravirine exposure comparable to that in adults receiving INTELENCE® 200 mg twice daily [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] when administered at a dose corresponding to 5.2 mg per kg twice daily. The population pharmacokinetic estimates for etravirine AUC12h and C0h are summarized in the table below.

Population pharmacokinetic estimates for etravirine (all doses combined) in treatment-experienced HIV-1infected pediatric subjects 6 years to less than 18 years of age (TMC125-C213)

Parameter N = 101
AUC12h (ng•h/mL)
  Geometric Mean ± Standard Deviation 3742 ± 4314
  Median (Range) 4499 (62 - 28865)
C0h (ng/mL)
  Geometric Mean ± Standard Deviation 205 ± 342
  Median (Range) 287 (2 - 2276)

The pharmacokinetics of etravirine in pediatric subjects less than 6 years of age have not been established.

Drug Interactions

[See also DRUG INTERACTIONS]

Etravirine is a substrate of CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Therefore, co-administration of INTELENCE® with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of INTELENCE®.

Etravirine is an inducer of CYP3A and inhibitor of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein. Therefore, coadministration of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 or are transported by P-glycoprotein with INTELENCE® may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of the co-administered drug(s).

Drug interaction studies were performed with INTELENCE® and other drugs likely to be co-administered and some drugs commonly used as probes for pharmacokinetic interactions. The effects of co-administration of other drugs on the AUC, Cmax, and Cmin values of etravirine are summarized in Table 5 (effect of other drugs on INTELENCE®). The effect of co-administration of INTELENCE® on the AUC, Cmax, and Cmin values of other drugs are summarized in Table 6 (effect of INTELENCE® on other drugs). For information regarding clinical recommendations, see DRUG INTERACTIONS.

Table 5: Drug Interactions: Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Etravirine in the Presence of Co-administered Drugs

Co-administered Drug Dose/Schedule of Co-administered Drug N Exposure Mean Ratio of Etravirine Pharmacokinetic Parameters 90% CI; No Effect = 1.00
Cmax AUC Cmin
Co-Administration With HIV Protease Inhibitors
(PIs)
Atazanavir 400 mg q.d. 14 1.47
(1.36-1.59)
1.50
(1.41-1.59)
1.58
(1.46-1.70)
Atazanavir/ ritonavir* 300/100 mg q.d. 14 1.30
(1.17-1.44)
1.30
(1.18-1.44)
1.26
(1.12-1.42)
Darunavir/ ritonavir 600/100 mg b.i.d. 14 0.68
(0.57-0.82)
0.63
(0.54-0.73)
0.51
(0.44-0.61)
Lopinavir/ ritonavir
(tablet)
400/100 mg b.i.d. 16 0.70
(0.64-0.78)
0.65
(0.59-0.71)
0.55
(0.49-0.62)
Ritonavir 600 mg b.i.d. 11 0.68
(0.55-0.85)
0.54
(0.41-0.73)
N.A.
Saquinavir/ ritonavir 1000/100 mg b.i.d. 14 0.63
(0.53-0.75)
0.67
(0.56-0.80)
0.71
(0.58-0.87)
Tipranavir/ ritonavir 500/200 mg b.i.d. 19 0.29
(0.22-0.40)
0.24
(0.18-0.33)
0.18
(0.13-0.25)
Co-Administration With Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
(NRTIs)
Didanosine 400 mg q.d. 15 1.16
(1.02-1.32)
1.11
(0.99-1.25)
1.05
(0.93-1.18)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg q.d. 23 0.81
(0.75-0.88)
0.81
(0.75-0.88)
0.82
(0.73-0.91)
Co-Administration With CCR5 Antagonists
Maraviroc 300 mg b.i.d. 14 1.05
(0.95-1.17)
1.06
(0.99-1.14)
1.08
(0.98-1.19)
Maraviroc
(when coadministered with darunavir/ ritonavir)†
150/600/100 mg b.i.d. 10 1.08
(0.98–1.20)
1.00
(0.86–1.15)
0.81
(0.65–1.01)
Co-Administration With Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors
Raltegravir 400 mg b.i.d. 19 1.04
(0.97-1.12)
1.10
(1.03-1.16)
1.17
(1.10-1.26)
Co-Administration With Other Drugs
Artemether/ lumefantrine 80/480 mg, 6 doses at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours 14 1.11
(1.06-1.17)
1.10
(1.06-1.15)
1.08
(1.04-1.14)
Atorvastatin 40 mg q.d. 16 0.97
(0.93-1.02)
1.02
(0.97-1.07)
1.10
(1.02-1.19)
Clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. 15 ↑  1.46
(1.38-1.56)
1.42
(1.34-1.50)
1.46
(1.36-1.58)
Fluconazole 200 mg q.a.m. 16 ↑  1.75
(1.60-1.91)
1.86
(1.73-2.00)
2.09
(1.90-2.31)
Omeprazole 40 mg q.d. 18 ↑  1.17
(0.96-1.43)
1.41
(1.22-1.62)
N.A.
Paroxetine 20 mg q.d. 16 1.05
(0.96-1.15)
1.01
(0.93-1.10)
1.07
(0.98-1.17)
Ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. 18 ↓  0.94
(0.75-1.17)
0.86
(0.76-0.97)
N.A.
Rifabutin 300 mg q.d. 12 ↓  0.63
(0.53-0.74)
0.63
(0.54-0.74)
0.65
(0.56-0.74)
Telaprevir 750 mg every 8 hours 15 0.93
(0.84-1.03)
0.94
(0.85-1.04)
0.97
(0.86-1.10)
Voriconazole 200 mg b.i.d. 16 ↑  1.26
(1.16-1.38)
1.36
(1.25-1.47)
1.52
(1.41-1.64)
CI = Confidence Interval; N = number of subjects with data; N.A. = not available; ↑ = increase; ↓ = decrease; ↔ = no change; q.d. = once daily; b.i.d. = twice daily; q.a.m. = once daily in the morning
* The expected increase in systemic exposure of etravirine when co-administered with atazanavir/ritonavir
(~100%) as outlined in Table 3 is theoretical and based on comparing exposures of etravirine in a drug-drug interaction study with exposure in the pivotal Phase 3 trials (in which darunavir/ritonavir was part of the background regimen).
† The reference for etravirine exposure is the pharmacokinetic parameters of etravirine in the presence of darunavir/ritonavir.

Table 6: Drug Interactions: Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Co-administered Drugs in the Presence of INTELENCE®

Co-administered Drug Dose/Schedule of Co-administered Drug N Exposure Mean Ratio of Co-administered Drug Pharmacokinetic Parameters 90% CI; No effect = 1.00
C max AUC Cmin
Co-Administration With HIV Protease Inhibitors
(PIs)
Atazanavir 400 mg q.d. 14 0.97
(0.73-1.29)
0.83
(0.63-1.09)
0.53
(0.38-0.73)
Atazanavir/ ritonavir 300/100 mg q.d. 13 0.97
(0.89-1.05)
0.86
(0.79-0.93)
0.62
(0.55-0.71)
Darunavir/ ritonavir 600/100 mg b.i.d. 15 1.11
(1.01-1.22)
1.15
(1.05-1.26)
1.02
(0.90-1.17)
Fosamprenavir/ ritonavir 700/100 mg b.i.d. 8 1.62
(1.47-1.79)
1.69
(1.53-1.86)
1.77
(1.39-2.25)
Lopinavir/ ritonavir
(tablet)
400/100 mg b.i.d. 16 0.89
(0.82-0.96)
0.87
(0.83-0.92)
0.80
(0.73-0.88)
Saquinavir/ ritonavir 1000/100 mg b.i.d. 15 1.00
(0.70-1.42)
0.95
(0.64-1.42)
0.80
(0.46-1.38)
Tipranavir/ ritonavir 500/200 mg b.i.d. 19 1.14
(1.02-1.27)
1.18
(1.03-1.36)
1.24
(0.96-1.59)
Co-Administration With Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
(NRTIs)
Didanosine 400 mg q.d. 14 0.91
(0.58-1.42)
0.99
(0.79-1.25)
N.A.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg q.d. 19 1.15
(1.04-1.27)
1.15
(1.09-1.21)
1.19
(1.13-1.26)
Co-Administration With CCR5 Antagonists
Maraviroc 300 mg b.i.d. 14 0.40
(0.28-0.57)
0.47
(0.38-0.58)
0.61
(0.53-0.71)
Maraviroc
(when coadministered with darunavir/ ritonavir)*
150/600/100 mg b.i.d. 10 1.77
(1.20-2.60)
3.10
(2.57-3.74)
5.27
(4.51-6.15)
Co-Administration With Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors
Raltegravir 400 mg b.i.d. 19 0.89
(0.68-1.15)
0.90
(0.68-1.18)
0.66
(0.34-1.26)
Co-Administration With Other Drugs
Artemether 80/480 mg, 6 doses at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours 15 0.72
(0.55-0.94)
0.62
(0.48-0.80)
0.82
(0.67-1.01)
Dihydroartemisinin 15 0.84
(0.71-0.99)
0.85
(0.75-0.97)
0.83
(0.71-0.97)
Lumefantrine 15 1.07
(0.94-1.23)
0.87
(0.77-0.98)
0.97
(0.83-1.15)
Atorvastatin 40 mg q.d. 16 1.04
(0.84-1.30)
0.63
(0.58-0.68)
N.A.
2-hydroxy- atorvastatin 16 1.76
(1.60-1.94)
1.27
(1.19-1.36)
N.A.
Buprenorphine Norbuprenorphine Individual dose regimen ranging from 4/1 mg to 16/4 mg q.d. 16 0.89
(0.76-1.05)
0.75
(0.66-0.84)
0.60
(0.52-0.68)
16 1.08
(0.95-1.23)
0.88
(0.81-0.96)
0.76
(0.67-0.87)
Clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. 15 0.66
(0.57-0.77)
0.61
(0.53-0.69)
0.47
(0.38-0.57)
14-hydroxy- clarithromycin 15 1.33
(1.13-1.56)
1.21
(1.05-1.39)
1.05
(0.90-1.22)
Digoxin 0.5 mg single dose 16 1.19
(0.96-1.49)
1.18
(0.90-1.56)
N.A.
Ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg q.d. 16 1.33
(1.21-1.46)
1.22
(1.13-1.31)
1.09
(1.01-1.18)
Norethindrone 1 mg q.d. 16 1.05
(0.98-1.12)
0.95
(0.90-0.99)
0.78
(0.68-0.90)
Fluconazole 200 mg q.a.m. 15 0.92
(0.85-1.00)
0.94
(0.88-1.01)
0.91
(0.84-0.98)
R(-) Methadone Individual dose regimen ranging from 60 to 130 mg/day 16 1.02
(0.96-1.09)
1.06
(0.99-1.13)
1.10
(1.02-1.19)
S(+) Methadone 16 0.89
(0.83-0.97)
0.89
(0.82-0.96)
0.89
(0.81-0.98)
Paroxetine 20 mg q.d. 16 1.06
(0.95-1.20)
1.03
(0.90-1.18)
0.87
(0.75-1.02)
Rifabutin 300 mg q.d. 12 0.90
(0.78-1.03)
0.83
(0.75-0.94)
0.76
(0.66-0.87)
25-O-desacetylrifabutin 300 mg q.d. 12 0.85
(0.72-1.00)
0.83
(0.74-0.92)
0.78
(0.70-0.87)
Sildenafil 50 mg single dose 15 0.55
(0.40-0.75)
0.43
(0.36-0.51)
N.A.
N-desmethyl- sildenafil 15 0.75
(0.59-0.96)
0.59
(0.52-0.68)
N.A.
Telaprevir 750 mg every 8 hours 15 0.90
(0.79-1.02)
0.84
(0.71-0.98)
0.75
(0.61-0.92)
Voriconazole 200 mg b.i.d. 14 0.95
(0.75-1.21)
1.14
(0.88-1.47)
1.23
(0.87-1.75)
CI = Confidence Interval; N = number of subjects with data; N.A. = not available; ↑ = increase; ↓ = decrease; ↔ = no change; q.d. = once daily ; b.i.d. = twice daily; q.a.m. = once daily in the morning
* compared to maraviroc 150 mg b.i.d.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Etravirine is an NNRTI of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Etravirine binds directly to reverse transcriptase (RT) and blocks the RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities by causing a disruption of the enzyme's catalytic site. Etravirine does not inhibit the human DNA polymerases α, β, and γ.

Antiviral Activity in Cell Culture

Etravirine exhibited activity against laboratory strains and clinical isolates of wild-type HIV-1 in acutely infected T-cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and human monocytes/macrophages with median EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 5.5 nM (i.e., 0.4 to 2.4 ng per mL). Etravirine demonstrated antiviral activity in cell culture against a broad panel of HIV-1 group M isolates (subtype A, B, C, D, E, F, G) with EC50 values ranging from 0.29 to 1.65 nM and EC50 values ranging from 11.5 to 21.7 nM against group O primary isolates. Etravirine did not show antagonism when studied in combination with the following antiretroviral drugs—the NNRTIs delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine; the N(t)RTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine, and zidovudine; the PIs amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir; the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide; the integrase strand transfer inhibitor raltegravir and the CCR5 co-receptor antagonist maraviroc.

Resistance
In Cell Culture

Etravirine-resistant strains were selected in cell culture originating from wild-type HIV-1 of different origins and subtypes, as well as NNRTI resistant HIV-1. Development of reduced susceptibility to etravirine typically required more than one substitution in reverse transcriptase of which the following were observed most frequently: L100I, E138K, E138G, V179I, Y181C, and M230I.

In Treatment-Experienced Subjects

In the Phase 3 trials TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, substitutions that developed most commonly in subjects with virologic failure at Week 48 to the INTELENCE®-containing regimen were V179F, V179I, and Y181C which usually emerged in a background of multiple other NNRTI resistance-associated substitutions. In all the trials conducted with INTELENCE® in HIV-1 infected subjects, the following substitutions emerged most commonly: L100I, E138G, V179F, V179I, Y181C and H221Y. Other NNRTI-resistance associated substitutions which emerged on etravirine treatment in less than 10% of the virologic failure isolates included K101E/H/P, K103N/R, V106I/M, V108I, Y181I, Y188L, V189I, G190S/C, N348I and R356K. The emergence of NNRTI substitutions on etravirine treatment contributed to decreased susceptibility to etravirine with a median fold-change in etravirine susceptibility of 40-fold from reference and a median fold-change of 6-fold from baseline.

Cross-Resistance

Site-Directed NNRTI Mutant Virus

Etravirine showed antiviral activity against 55 of 65 HIV-1 strains (85%) with single amino acid substitutions at RT positions associated with NNRTI resistance, including the most commonly found K103N. The single amino acid substitutions associated with an etravirine reduction in susceptibility greater than 3-fold were K101A, K101P, K101Q, E138G, E138Q, Y181C, Y181I, Y181T, Y181V, and M230L, and of these, the greatest reductions were Y181I (13-fold change in EC50 value) and Y181V (17-fold change in EC50 value). Mutant strains containing a single NNRTI resistance associated substitution (K101P, K101Q, E138Q, or M230L) had cross-resistance between etravirine and efavirenz. The majority (39 of 61; 64%) of the NNRTI mutant viruses with 2 or 3 amino acid substitutions associated with NNRTI resistance had decreased susceptibility to etravirine (fold-change greater than 3). The highest levels of resistance to etravirine were observed for HIV-1 harboring a combination of substitutions V179F + Y181C (187 fold-change), V179F + Y181I (123 fold-change), or V179F + Y181C + F227C (888 fold-change).

Clinical Isolates

Etravirine retained a fold-change less than or equal to 3 against 60% of 6171 NNRTI-resistant clinical isolates. In the same panel, the proportion of clinical isolates resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz and/or nevirapine (defined as a fold-change above their respective biological cutoff values in the assay) was 79%, 87%, and 95%, respectively. In TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, 34% of the baseline isolates had decreased susceptibility to etravirine (foldchange greater than 3) and 60%, 69%, and 78% of all baseline isolates were resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine, respectively. Of subjects who received etravirine and were virologic failures in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, 90%, 84%, and 96% of viral isolates obtained at the time of treatment failure were resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine, respectively. Therefore, cross-resistance to delavirdine, efavirenz, and/or nevirapine is expected after virologic failure with an etravirine-containing regimen for the virologic failure isolates.

Treatment-na´ve HIV-1-infected subjects in the Phase 3 trials for EDURANT (rilpivirine)

There are currently no clinical data available on the use of etravirine in subjects who experienced virologic failure on a rilpivirine-containing regimen. However, in the rilpivirine adult clinical development program, there was evidence of phenotypic cross-resistance between rilpivirine and etravirine. In the pooled analyses of the Phase 3 clinical trials for rilpivirine, 38 rilpivirine virologic failure subjects had evidence of HIV-1 strains with genotypic and phenotypic resistance to rilpivirine. Of these subjects, 89% (34 subjects) of virologic failure isolates were cross-resistant to etravirine based on phenotype data. Consequently, it can be inferred that cross-resistance to etravirine is likely after virologic failure and development of rilpivirine resistance. Refer to the prescribing information for EDURANT (rilpivirine) for further information.

Baseline Genotype/Phenotype and Virologic Outcome Analyses

In TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, the presence at baseline of the substitutions L100I, E138A, I167V, V179D, V179F, Y181I, Y181V, or G190S was associated with a decreased virologic response to etravirine. Additional substitutions associated with a decreased virologic response to etravirine when in the presence of 3 or more additional 2008 IAS-USA defined NNRTI substitutions include A98G, K101H, K103R, V106I, V179T, and Y181C. The presence of K103N, which was the most prevalent NNRTI substitution in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 at baseline, did not affect the response in the INTELENCE® arm. Overall, response rates to etravirine decreased as the number of baseline NNRTI substitutions increased (shown as the proportion of subjects achieving viral load less than 50 plasma HIV RNA copies per mL at Week 48) (Table 7).

Table 7: Proportion of Subjects with less than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL at Week 48 by Baseline Number of IAS-USA-Defined NNRTI Substitutions in the Non-VF Excluded Population of the Pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials

# IAS-USA-Defined NNRTI substitutions* Etravirine Arms
N = 561
Re-Used/Not Used Enfuvirtide De Novo Enfuvirtide
All ranges 61% (254/418) 76% (109/143)
0 68% (52/76) 95% (20/21)
1 67% (72/107) 77% (24/31)
2 64% (75/118) 86% (38/44)
3 55% (36/65) 62% (16/26)
≥ 4 37% (19/52) 52% (11/21)
  Placebo Arms
N = 592
All ranges 34% (147/435) 59% (93/157)
* 2008 IAS-USA defined substitutions = V90I, A98G, L100I, K101E/H/P, K103N, V106A/I/M, V108I, E138A, V179D/F/T, Y181C/I/V, Y188C/H/L, G190A/S, P225H, M230L

Response rates assessed by baseline etravirine phenotype are shown in Table 8. These baseline phenotype groups are based on the select subject populations in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 and are not meant to represent definitive clinical susceptibility breakpoints for INTELENCE®. The data are provided to give clinicians information on the likelihood of virologic success based on pre-treatment susceptibility to etravirine in treatment-experienced patients.

Table 8: Proportion of Subjects with less than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL at Week 48 by Baseline Phenotype and Enfuvirtide Use in the Pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials*

Etravirine Fold Change Etravirine Arms
N = 559
Re-Used/Not Used Enfuvirtide De Novo Enfuvirtide Clinical Response Range
All ranges 61% (253/416) 76% (109/143) Overall Response
0 - 3 69% (188/274) 83% (75/90) Higher than Overall Response
> 3 - 13 50% (39/78) 66% (25/38) Lower than Overall Response
> 13 41% (26/64) 60% (9/15) Lower than Overall Response
  Placebo Arms
N = 583
All ranges 34% (145/429) 60% (92/154)
* Non-VF excluded analysis

The proportion of virologic responders (viral load less than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL) by the phenotypic susceptibility score (PSS) of the background therapy, including enfuvirtide, is shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Virologic Response (Viral Load less than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL) at Week 48 by Phenotypic Susceptibility Score in the Non-VF Excluded Population of TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials (Pooled Analysis)

  INTELENCE® + BR
N=559
Placebo + BR
N=586
PSS*
0 43% (40/93) 5% (5/95)
1 61% (125/206) 28% (64/226)
2 77% (114/149) 59% (97/165)
≥ 3 75% (83/111) 72% (72/100)
* The phenotypic susceptibility score (PSS) was defined as the total number of active antiretroviral drugs in the background therapy to which a subject's baseline viral isolate showed sensitivity in phenotypic resistance tests. Each drug in the background therapy was scored as a '1' or '0' based on whether the viral isolate was considered susceptible or resistant to that drug, respectively. In the calculation of the PSS, darunavir was counted as a sensitive antiretroviral if the FC was less than or equal to 10; enfuvirtide was counted as a sensitive antiretroviral if it had not been used previously. INTELENCE® was not included in this calculation.

Clinical Studies

Treatment-Experienced Adult Subjects

The clinical efficacy of INTELENCE® is derived from the analyses of 48-week data from 2 ongoing, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trials, TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 (DUET-1 and DUET-2). These trials are identical in design and the results below are pooled data from the two trials.

TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 are Phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of INTELENCE® in combination with a background regimen (BR) as compared to placebo in combination with a BR. Eligible subjects were treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than 5000 copies per mL while on an antiretroviral regimen for at least 8 weeks. In addition, subjects had 1 or more NNRTI resistance-associated mutations at screening or from prior genotypic analysis, and 3 or more of the following primary PI mutations at screening: D30N, V32I, L33F, M46I/L, I47A/V, G48V, I50L/V, V82A/F/L/S/T, I84V, N88S, or L90M. Randomization was stratified by the intended use of enfuvirtide (ENF) in the BR, previous use of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/rtv), and screening viral load. Virologic response was defined as HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at Week 48.

All study subjects received DRV/rtv as part of their BR, and at least 2 other investigator-selected antiretroviral drugs (N[t]RTIs with or without ENF). Of INTELENCE®-treated subjects, 25.5% used ENF for the first time (de novo) and 20.0% re-used ENF. Of placebo-treated subjects, 26.5% used de novo ENF and 20.4% re-used ENF.

In the pooled analysis for TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the INTELENCE® arm and the placebo arm. Table 10 displays selected demographic and baseline disease characteristics of the subjects in the INTELENCE® and placebo arms.

Table 10: Demographic and Baseline Disease Characteristics of Subjects in the TMC125-C206 and TMC125C216 Trials (Pooled Analysis)

  Pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials
INTELENCE® + BR
N=599
Placebo + BR
N=604
Demographic Characteristics
Median Age, years (range) 46 (18-77) 45 (18-72)
Sex
  Male 90.0% 88.6%
  Female 10.0% 11.4%
Race
  White 70.1% 69.8%
  Black 13.2% 13.0%
  Hispanic 11.3% 12.2%
  Asian 1.3% 0.6%
  Other 4.1% 4.5%
Baseline Disease Characteristics
Median Baseline Plasma HIV-1 RNA(range), log10 copies/mL 4.8 (2.7-6.8) 4.8 (2.2-6.5)
Percentage of Subjects with Baseline Viral Load:
   < 30,000 copies/mL 27.5% 28.8%
   ≥ 30,000 copies/mL and
   < 100,000 copies/mL 34.4% 35.3%
   ≥ 100,000 copies/mL 38.1% 35.9%
Median Baseline CD4+ Cell Count (range), cells/mm³ 99 (1-789) 109 (0-912)
Percentage of Subjects with Baseline CD4+ Cell Count:
   < 50 cells/mm³ 35.6% 34.7%
   ≥ 50 cells/mm³ and < 200 cells/mm³ 34.8% 34.5%
   ≥ 200 cells/mm³ 29.6% 30.8%
Median (range) Number of Primary PI Mutations* 4 (0-7) 4 (0-8)
Percentage of Subjects with Previous Use of NNRTIs:
  0 8.2% 7.9%
  1 46.9% 46.7%
   > 1 44.9% 45.4%
Percentage of Subjects with Previous Use of the following NNRTIs:
  Efavirenz 70.3% 72.5%
  Nevirapine 57.1% 58.6%
  Delavirdine 13.7% 12.6%
Median (range) Number of NNRTI RAMs† 2 (0-8) 2 (0-7)
Median Fold Change of the Virus for the Following NNRTIs:
  Delavirdine 27.3 26.1
  Efavirenz 63.9 45.4
  Etravirine 1.6 1.5
  Nevirapine 74.3 74.0
Percentage of Subjects with Previous Use of a Fusion Inhibitor 39.6% 42.2%
Percentage of Subjects with a Phenotypic Sensitivity Score (PSS) for the background therapy‡ of:
0 17.0% 16.2%
1 36.5% 38.7%
2 26.9% 27.8%
≥ 3 19.7% 17.3%
RAMs = Resistance-Associated Mutations, BR=background regimen
FC = fold change in EC50
*IAS-USA primary PI mutations [August/September 2007]: D30N, V32I, L33F, M46I/L, I47A/V, G48V, I50L/V, I54L/M, L76V, V82A/F/L/S/T, I84V, N88S, L90M
†Tibotec NNRTI RAMs [June 2008]: A98G, V90I, L100I, K101E/H/P/Q, K103H/N/S/T, V106A/M/I, V108I, E138A/G/K/Q, V179D/E/F/G/I/T, Y181C/I/V, Y188C/H/L, V189I, G190A/C/E/Q/S, H221Y, P255H, F227C/L, M230I/L, P236L, K238N/T, Y318F
‡ The PSS was calculated for the background therapy (as determined on Day 7). Percentages are based on the number of subjects with available phenotype data. For fusion inhibitors (enfuvirtide), subjects were considered resistant if the drug was used in previous therapy up to baseline. INTELENCE® is not included in this calculation.

Efficacy at Week 48 for subjects in the INTELENCE® and placebo arms for the pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 study populations are shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Outcomes of Treatment at Week 48 of the TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials (Pooled Analysis)

  Pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 Trials
INTELENCE® + BR N=599 Placebo + BR N=604
Virologic Responders at Week 48 Viral Load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL 359 (60%) 232 (38%)
Virologic Failures (VF) at Week 48 Viral Load ≥ 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL 123 (21%) 201 (33%)
Death 11 (2%) 19 (3%)
Discontinuations before Week 48:
  due to VF 58 (10%) 110 (18%)
  due to Adverse Events 31 (5%) 14 (2%)
  due to other reasons 17 (3%) 28 (5%)
BR=background regimen

At Week 48, 70.8% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL as compared to 46.4% of placebo-treated subjects. The mean decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline to Week 48 was -2.23 log10 copies per mL for INTELENCE®-treated subjects and -1.46 log10 copies per mL for placebo-treated subjects. The mean CD4+ cell count increase from baseline for INTELENCE®-treated subjects was 96 cells per mm³ and 68 cells per mm³ for placebo-treated subjects.

Of the study population who either re-used or did not use ENF, 57.4% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 31.7% of placebo-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL. Of the study population using ENF de novo, 67.3% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 57.2% of placebo-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL.

Treatment-emergent CDC category C events occurred in 4% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 8.4% of placebo-treated subjects.

Study TMC125-C227 was a randomized, exploratory, active-controlled, open-label, Phase 2b trial. Eligible subjects were treatment-experienced, PI-na´ve HIV-1-infected patients with genotypic evidence of NNRTI resistance at screening or from prior genotypic analysis. The virologic response was evaluated in 116 subjects who were randomized to INTELENCE® (59 subjects) or an investigator-selected PI (57 subjects), each given with 2 investigator-selected N(t)RTIs. INTELENCE®-treated subjects had lower antiviral responses associated with reduced susceptibility to the N(t)RTIs and to INTELENCE® as compared to the control PI-treated subjects.

Treatment-Experienced Pediatric Subjects (6 years to less than 18 years of age)

TMC125-C213, a single-arm, Phase 2 trial evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of INTELENCE® enrolled 101 antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects 6 years to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 16 kg. Subjects eligible for this trial were on an antiretroviral regimen with confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA of at least 500 copies per mL and viral susceptibility to INTELENCE® at screening.

The median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.9 log10 copies per mL, and the median baseline CD4 cell count was 385 x 106 cells per mm³.

At Week 24, 52% of all pediatric subjects had HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL. The proportion of pediatric subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL was 67%. The mean CD4 cell count increase from baseline was 112 x 106 cells per mm³.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

A A A

Intelence - User Reviews

Intelence User Reviews

Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.

Here is a collection of user reviews for the medication Intelence sorted by most helpful. Patient Discussions FAQs

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


WebMD Daily

Get breaking medical news.