"Jan. 7, 2011 -- Many people taking powerful psychiatric medications that increase their risk of weight gain and diabetes are prescribed those drugs when there's little evidence that they will get any benefit from them, a new study shows.
(paliperidone) Extended-Release Tablets
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INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIARELATED PSYCHOSIS
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. INVEGA® (paliperidone) Extended-Release Tablets is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Paliperidone, the active ingredient in INVEGA® (paliperidone) Extended-Release Tablets, is a psychotropic agent belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole derivatives. INVEGA® contains a racemic mixture of (+)- and (-)- paliperidone. The chemical name is (±)-3-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-1,2benzisoxazol-3-yl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-2-methyl-4Hpyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one. Its molecular formula is C23H27FN4O3 and its molecular weight is 426.49. The structural formula is:
Paliperidone is sparingly soluble in 0.1N HCl and methylene chloride; practically insoluble in water, 0.1N NaOH, and hexane; and slightly soluble in N,N-dimethylformamide.
INVEGA® (paliperidone) Extended-Release Tablets are available in 1.5 mg (orange-brown), 3 mg (white), 6 mg (beige), and 9 mg (pink) strengths. INVEGA® (paliperidone) utilizes OROS® osmotic drug-release technology.
Inactive ingredients are carnauba wax, cellulose acetate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polyethylene oxides, povidone, sodium chloride, stearic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and iron oxides. The 3 mg tablets also contain lactose monohydrate and triacetin.
Delivery System Components and Performance
INVEGA® uses osmotic pressure to deliver paliperidone at a controlled rate. The delivery system, which resembles a capsule-shaped tablet in appearance, consists of an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a subcoat and semipermeable membrane. The trilayer core is composed of two drug layers containing the drug and excipients, and a push layer containing osmotically active components. There are two precision laser-drilled orifices on the drug-layer dome of the tablet. Each tablet strength has a different colored water-dispersible overcoat and print markings. In an aqueous environment, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the water-dispersible color overcoat erodes quickly. Water then enters the tablet through the semipermeable membrane that controls the rate at which water enters the tablet core, which, in turn, determines the rate of drug delivery. The hydrophilic polymers of the core hydrate and swell, creating a gel containing paliperidone that is then pushed out through the tablet orifices. The biologically inert components of the tablet remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and are eliminated in the stool as a tablet shell, along with insoluble core components.
What are the possible side effects of paliperidone (Invega)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using paliperidone and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- very stiff (rigid) muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, feeling like you might pass out;
- restless muscle movements in your eyes, tongue, jaw, or neck;
- tremor (uncontrolled shaking);
- trouble swallowing;
- sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side...
What are the precautions when taking paliperidone (Invega)?
Before taking paliperidone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to risperidone; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe liver disease, kidney disease, esophagus/stomach/intestinal movement or blockage disorders (e.g., difficulty swallowing, diarrhea, peritonitis, cystic fibrosis, Meckel's diverticulum), a severe loss of body water (dehydration), disease of the blood vessels in the brain (e.g., stroke), seizures, breast cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, low white blood cell count.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/19/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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