"NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Taking glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues is associated with an increased risk of bile duct and gallbladder disease, but not pancreatitis, in people with type 2 diabetes, according to two new studies.
INVOKANA causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating INVOKANA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS ] particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), elderly patients, patients on either diuretics or medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., angiotensinconverting-enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), or patients with low systolic blood pressure. Before initiating INVOKANA in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy.
Reports of ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including INVOKANA. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking INVOKANA. INVOKANA is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE].
Patients treated with INVOKANA who present with signs and symptoms consistent with severe metabolic acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of presenting blood glucose levels, as ketoacidosis associated with INVOKANA may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, INVOKANA should be discontinued, patient should be evaluated, and prompt treatment should be instituted. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement.
In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized and institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for diabetic ketoacidosis (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with dehydration and severe metabolic acidosis and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake due to illness or surgery, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g., type 1 diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), and alcohol abuse were identified.
Before initiating INVOKANA, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse. In patients treated with INVOKANA consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing INVOKANA in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgery).
Acute Kidney Injury And Impairment In Renal Function
INVOKANA causes intravascular volume contraction [see Hypotension ] and can cause renal impairment [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. There have been postmarketing reports of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, in patients receiving INVOKANA; some reports involved patients younger than 65 years of age.
Before initiating INVOKANA, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury including hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure and concomitant medications (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, NSAIDs). Consider temporarily discontinuing INVOKANA in any setting of reduced oral intake (such as acute illness or fasting) or fluid losses (such as gastrointestinal illness or excessive heat exposure); monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue INVOKANA promptly and institute treatment.
INVOKANA increases serum creatinine and decreases eGFR. Patients with hypovolemia may be more susceptible to these changes. Renal function abnormalities can occur after initiating INVOKANA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Renal function should be evaluated prior to initiation of INVOKANA and monitored periodically thereafter. Dosage adjustment and more frequent renal function monitoring are recommended in patients with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Use of INVOKANA is not recommended when eGFR is persistently less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
INVOKANA can lead to hyperkalemia. Patients with moderate renal impairment who are taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, or medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Monitor serum potassium levels periodically after initiating INVOKANA in patients with impaired renal function and in patients predisposed to hyperkalemia due to medications or other medical conditions.
Urosepsis And Pyelonephritis
There have been postmarketing reports of serious urinary tract infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including INVOKANA. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases the risk for urinary tract infections. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hypoglycemia With Concomitant Use with Insulin And Insulin Secretagogues
Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. INVOKANA can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with INVOKANA.
Genital Mycotic Infections
INVOKANA increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections and uncircumcised males were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Monitor and treat appropriately.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis, have been reported with INVOKANA. These reactions generally occurred within hours to days after initiating INVOKANA. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of INVOKANA; treat and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
An increased risk of bone fracture, occurring as early as 12 weeks after treatment initiation, was observed in patients using INVOKANA. Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk prior to initiating INVOKANA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Increases In Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C)
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting INVOKANA (canagliflozin) therapy and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed.
Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of INVOKANA and of alternative modes of therapy. Also inform patients about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and HbA1C testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment for diabetes complications. Advise patients to seek medical advice promptly during periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, as medication requirements may change.
Instruct patients to take INVOKANA only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients to take it as soon as it is remembered unless it is almost time for the next dose, in which case patients should skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time. Advise patients not to take two doses of INVOKANA at the same time.
Inform patients that the most common adverse reactions associated with INVOKANA are genital mycotic infection, urinary tract infection, and increased urination.
Inform female patients of child bearing age that the use of INVOKANA during pregnancy has not been studied in humans, and that INVOKANA should only be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Instruct patients to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
Inform nursing mothers to discontinue INVOKANA or nursing, taking into account the importance of drug to the mother.
Due to its mechanism of action, patients taking INVOKANA will test positive for glucose in their urine.
Inform patients that symptomatic hypotension may occur with INVOKANA and advise them to contact their doctor if they experience such symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Inform patients that dehydration may increase the risk for hypotension, and to have adequate fluid intake.
Inform patients that ketoacidosis is a serious life-threatening condition. Cases of ketoacidosis have been reported during use of INVOKANA. Instruct patients to check ketones (when possible) if symptoms consistent with ketoacidosis occur even if blood glucose is not elevated. If symptoms of ketoacidosis (including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tiredness, and labored breathing) occur, instruct patients to discontinue INVOKANA and seek medical advice immediately [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Acute Kidney Injury
Inform patients that acute kidney injury has been reported during use of INVOKANA. Advise patients to seek medical advice immediately if they have reduced oral intake (such as due to acute illness or fasting) or increased fluid losses (such as due to vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive heat exposure), as it may be appropriate to temporarily discontinue INVOKANA use in those settings [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Serious Urinary Tract Infections
Inform patients of the potential for urinary tract infections, which may be serious. Provide them with information on the symptoms of urinary tract infections. Advise them to seek medical advice if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Genital Mycotic Infections In Females (e.g., Vulvovaginitis)
Inform female patients that vaginal yeast infection may occur and provide them with information on the signs and symptoms of vaginal yeast infection. Advise them of treatment options and when to seek medical advice [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Genital Mycotic Infections In Males (e.g., Balanitis Or Balanoposthitis)
Inform male patients that yeast infection of penis (e.g., balanitis or balanoposthitis) may occur, especially in uncircumcised males and patients with prior history. Provide them with information on the signs and symptoms of balanitis and balanoposthitis (rash or redness of the glans or foreskin of the penis). Advise them of treatment options and when to seek medical advice [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that serious hypersensitivity reactions, such as urticaria, rash, anaphylaxis, and angioedema, have been reported with INVOKANA. Advise patients to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting allergic reaction, and to discontinue drug until they have consulted prescribing physicians.
Inform patients that bone fractures have been reported in patients taking INVOKANA. Provide them with information on factors that may contribute to fracture risk.
Advise pregnant women, and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus with treatment with INVOKANA [see Use In Specific Populations]. Instruct females of reproductive potential to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with INVOKANA [see Use In Specific Populations].
Active ingredient made in Belgium
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity was evaluated in 2-year studies conducted in CD1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Canagliflozin did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice dosed at 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg (less than or equal to 14 times exposure from a 300 mg clinical dose).
Testicular Leydig cell tumors, considered secondary to increased luteinizing hormone (LH), increased significantly in male rats at all doses tested (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). In a 12-week clinical study, LH did not increase in males treated with canagliflozin.
Renal tubular adenoma and carcinoma increased significantly in male and female rats dosed at 100 mg/kg, or approximately 12-times exposure from a 300 mg clinical dose. Also, adrenal pheochromocytoma increased significantly in males and numerically in females dosed at 100 mg/kg. Carbohydrate malabsorption associated with high doses of canagliflozin was considered a necessary proximal event in the emergence of renal and adrenal tumors in rats.
Clinical studies have not demonstrated carbohydrate malabsorption in humans at canagliflozin doses of up to 2-times the recommended clinical dose of 300 mg.
Canagliflozin was not mutagenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames assay. Canagliflozin was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay with but not without metabolic activation. Canagliflozin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in an in vivo oral micronucleus assay in rats and an in vivo oral Comet assay in rats.
Impairment Of Fertility
Canagliflozin had no effects on the ability of rats to mate and sire or maintain a litter up to the high dose of 100 mg/kg (approximately 14 times and 18 times the 300 mg clinical dose in males and females, respectively), although there were minor alterations in a number of reproductive parameters (decreased sperm velocity, increased number of abnormal sperm, slightly fewer corpora lutea, fewer implantation sites, and smaller litter sizes) at the highest dosage administered.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, INVOKANA is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
Limited data with INVOKANA in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
In animal studies, adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilatations that were not reversible were observed in rats when canagliflozin was administered during a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy, at an exposure 0.5times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Canagliflozin dosed directly to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 4, 20, 65, or 100 mg/kg increased kidney weights and dose dependently increased the incidence and severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatation at all doses tested. Exposure at the lowest dose was greater than or equal to 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. These outcomes occurred with drug exposure during periods of renal development in rats that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human renal development. The renal pelvic dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within a 1 month recovery period.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, canagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities independent of maternal toxicity were observed when canagliflozin was administered at doses up to 100 mg/kg in pregnant rats and 160 mg/kg in pregnant rabbits during embryonic organogenesis or during a study in which maternal rats were dosed from gestation day (GD) 6 through PND 21, yielding exposures up to approximately 19-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
There is no information regarding the presence of INVOKANA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Canagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise women that use of INVOKANA is not recommended while breastfeeding.
Radiolabeled canagliflozin administered to lactating rats on day 13 post-partum was present at a milk/plasma ratio of 1.40, indicating that canagliflozin and its metabolites are transferred into milk at a concentration comparable to that in plasma. Juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed a risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation.
Safety and effectiveness of INVOKANA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
Two thousand thirty-four (2034) patients 65 years and older, and 345 patients 75 years and older were exposed to INVOKANA in nine clinical studies of INVOKANA [see Clinical Studies].
Patients 65 years and older had a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume with INVOKANA (such as hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration), particularly with the 300 mg daily dose, compared to younger patients; a more prominent increase in the incidence was seen in patients who were 75 years and older [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Smaller reductions in HbA1C with INVOKANA relative to placebo were seen in older (65 years and older; -0.61% with INVOKANA 100 mg and -0.74% with INVOKANA 300 mg relative to placebo) compared to younger patients (-0.72% with INVOKANA 100 mg and -0.87% with INVOKANA 300 mg relative to placebo).
The efficacy and safety of INVOKANA were evaluated in a study that included patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Clinical Studies]. These patients had less overall glycemic efficacy and had a higher occurrence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume, renal-related adverse reactions, and decreases in eGFR compared to patients with mild renal impairment or normal renal function (eGFR greater than or equal to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Dose-related, transient mean increases in serum potassium were observed early after initiation of INVOKANA (i.e., within 3 weeks) in this trial. Increases in serum potassium of greater than 5.4 mEq/L and 15% above baseline occurred in 16.1%, 12.4%, and 27.0% of patients treated with placebo, INVOKANA 100 mg, and INVOKANA 300 mg, respectively. Severe elevations (greater than or equal to 6.5 mEq/L) occurred in 1.1%, 2.2%, and 2.2% of patients treated with placebo, INVOKANA 100 mg, and INVOKANA 300 mg, respectively [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The efficacy and safety of INVOKANA have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), with ESRD, or receiving dialysis. INVOKANA is not expected to be effective in these patient populations [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. The use of INVOKANA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and is therefore not recommended [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/17/2017
Additional Invokana Information
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