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WebMD Health News Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD
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(Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated) Injection
IPOL®, Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated, produced by Sanofi Pasteur SA, is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency. Each of the three strains of poliovirus is individually grown in vero cells, a continuous line of monkey kidney cells cultivated on microcarriers.1,2 The cells are grown in Eagle MEM modified medium, supplemented with newborn calf bovine serum tested for adventitious agents prior to use, originated from countries free of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. For viral growth, the culture medium is replaced by M-199, without calf bovine serum. This culture technique and improvements in purification, concentration, and standardization of poliovirus antigen produce a more potent and consistent immunogenic vaccine than the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) available in the US prior to 1988.3,4
After clarification and filtration, viral suspensions are concentrated by ultrafiltration, and purified by three liquid chromatography steps; one column of anion exchanger, one column of gel filtration, and again one column of anion exchanger. After re-equilibration of the purified viral suspension with Medium M-199 and adjustment of the antigen titer, the monovalent viral suspensions are inactivated at +37°C for at least 12 days with 1:4000 formalin.
Each dose (0.5 mL) of trivalent vaccine is formulated to contain 40 D antigen units of Type 1, 8 D antigen units of Type 2, and 32 D antigen units of Type 3 poliovirus. For each lot of IPOL vaccine, D-antigen content is determined in vitro using the D-antigen ELISA assay. IPOL vaccine is produced from vaccine concentrates diluted with M-199 medium. Also present are 0.5% of 2- phenoxyethanol and a maximum of 0.02% of formaldehyde per dose as preservatives. Neomycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B are used in vaccine production; and, although purification procedures eliminate measurable amounts, less than 5 ng neomycin, 200 ng streptomycin, and 25 ng polymyxin B per dose may still be present. The residual calf bovine serum albumin is less than 50 ng/dose in the final vaccine.
The vaccine is clear and colorless and should be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
The vial and vial stopper are not made with natural rubber latex.
1. van Wezel AL, et al. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine: Current production methods and new developments. Rev Infect Dis 6 (Suppl 2): S335-S340, 1984.
2. Montagnon BJ, et al. Industrial scale production of inactivated poliovirus vaccine prepared by culture of Vero cells on microcarrier. Rev Infect Dis 6 (Suppl 2): S341-S344, 1984.
3. McBean AM, et al. Serologic response to oral polio vaccine and enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccines. Am J Epidemiol 128: 615-628, 1988.
4. Murdin AD, et al. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine: past and present experience. Vaccine 8: 735-746, 1996.
What are the possible side effects of polio vaccine (Ipol)?
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.
Becoming infected with polio vaccine is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Get emergency medical help if you have any...
What are the precautions when taking poliovirus vaccine inactivated (Ipol)?
Before receiving poliovirus vaccine, tell your health care professional if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before receiving this vaccine, tell your health care professional your medical history, especially of: current fever/illness, immune system problems (such as due to cancer treatment, HIV infection).
During pregnancy, this vaccine should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
It is unknown if this vaccine passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before...
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/30/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Ipol Information
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