May 25, 2016

Iron

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How does Iron work?

Iron helps red blood cells deliver oxygen from the lungs to cells all over the body. Once the oxygen is delivered, iron then helps red blood cells carry carbon dioxide waste back to the lungs to be exhaled. Iron also plays a role in many important chemical reactions in the body.

Are there safety concerns?

Iron is LIKELY SAFE for most people when it is taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. However, it can cause side effects including stomach upset and pain, constipation or diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Taking iron supplements with food seems to reduce some of these side effects. However, food can also reduce how well the body absorbed iron. Iron should be taken on an empty stomach if possible. If it causes too many side effects, it can be taken with food. Try to avoid taking it with foods containing dairy products, coffee, tea, or cereals.

There are many forms of iron products such as ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and others. Some products, such as those containing polysaccharide-iron complex (Niferex-150, etc), claim to cause fewer side effects than others. But there is no reliable evidence to support this claim.

Some enteric coated or controlled release iron products might reduce nausea for some people; however, these products also have less absorption by the body.

Liquid iron supplements may blacken teeth.

High doses of iron are LIKELY UNSAFE, especially for children. Iron is the most common cause of poisoning deaths in children. Doses as low as 60 mg/kg can be fatal. Iron poisoning can cause many serious problems including stomach and intestinal distress, liver failure, dangerously low blood pressure, and death. If you suspect an adult or child has taken more than the recommended amount of iron, call your healthcare professional or the nearest poison control center immediately.

There is some concern that high intake of iron might increase the chance of developing heart disease. Some studies show that people with high intake of iron, especially from food sources such as red meat, are more likely to have heart disease. This may be especially true for people with type 2 diabetes. But this is controversial. Other studies do not show that iron increases the chance of heart disease. It is too soon to tell for sure if iron increases the chance of heart disease.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Iron is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women who have enough iron stored in their bodies when used in doses below the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 45 mg per day of elemental iron. The UL is the highest level of intake at which no harmful side effects are expected. However, iron is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. If you do not have iron deficiency, do not take more than 45 mg per day of elemental iron per day. Higher doses frequently cause stomach and intestinal side effects such as nausea and vomiting. High levels of hemoglobin at the time of delivery are associated with bad pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that contains iron.

Diabetes: There is concern that a diet that is high in iron might increase the risk of heart disease in women with type 2 diabetes, although this has not been proven. If you have diabetes, discuss your iron intake with your healthcare provider.

Stomach or intestinal ulcers: Iron might cause irritation and make these conditions worse. Use iron with care.

Intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease: Iron might cause irritation and make these conditions worse. Use iron with care.

Hemoglobin disease, such as thalassemia: Taking iron might cause iron overload in people with these conditions. If you have a hemoglobin disease, don't take iron unless directed to do so by your healthcare provider.

Premature infants: Giving iron to premature infants with low blood levels of vitamin E can cause serious problems. The vitamin E deficiency should be corrected before giving iron. Talk with your healthcare provider before giving iron to a premature infant.


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