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The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered iopamidol in normal subjects conform to an open two-compartment model with first order elimination (a rapid alpha phase for drug distribution and a slow beta phase for drug elimination). The elimination serum or plasma half-life is approximately two hours; the half-life is not dose dependent. No significant metabolism, deiodination, or biotransformation occurs.
Iopamidol is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); following intrathecal administration, iopamidol appears in plasma within one hour and virtually all of the drug reaches the systemic circulation within 24 hours. Iopamidol is excreted mainly through the kidneys following intrathecal administration, and the drug is essentially undetectable in the plasma 48 hours later. In patients with impaired renal function, the elimination half-life is prolonged dependent upon the degree of impairment. In the absence of renal dysfunction, the cumulative urinary excretion for iopamidol, expressed as a percentage of administered intravenous dose is approximately 35 to 40 percent at 60 minutes, 80 to 90 percent at 8 hours, and 90 percent or more in the 72- to 96-hour period after administration. In normal subjects, approximately 1 percent or less of the administered dose appears in cumulative 72- to 96-hour fecal specimens.
Iopamidol displays little tendency to bind to serum or plasma proteins.
No evidence of in vivo complement activation has been found in normal subjects.
Animal studies indicate that iopamidol does not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant extent following intravascular administration.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/28/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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