"Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) was linked with metabolic syndrome in a large cohort of men from the UK, researchers found.
"To our knowledge, this is the largest study to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a representa"...
As with other alpha adrenergic antagonists, orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension, dizziness, and vertigo) may occur in patients treated with tamsulosin-containing products, including JALYN, and can result in syncope. Patients starting treatment with JALYN should be cautioned to avoid situations where syncope could result in an injury [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Strong Inhibitors of CYP3A4
Tamsulosin-containing products, including JALYN, should not be coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole) as this can significantly increase tamsulosin exposure [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Inhibitors of CYP2D6 and Moderate Inhibitors of CYP3A4
Tamsulosin-containing products, including JALYN, should be used with caution when coadministered with moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., erythromycin), strong (e.g., paroxetine) or moderate (e.g., terbinafine) inhibitors of CYP2D6, or in patients known to be poor metabolizers of CYP2D6, as there is a potential for significant increase in tamsulosin exposure [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Other Alpha Adrenergic Antagonists
Tamsulosin-containing products, including JALYN, should not be coadministered with other alpha adrenergic antagonists because of the increased risk of symptomatic hypotension.
Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors (PDE-5 Inhibitors)
Caution is advised when alpha adrenergic antagonist-containing products, including JALYN, are coadministered with PDE-5 inhibitors. Alpha adrenergic antagonists and PDE-5 inhibitors are both vasodilators that can lower blood pressure. Concomitant use of these 2 drug classes can potentially cause symptomatic hypotension.
Effects on Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and the Use of PSA in Prostate Cancer Detection
Coadministration of dutasteride with tamsulosin resulted in similar changes to serum PSA as with dutasteride monotherapy.
In clinical trials, dutasteride reduced serum PSA concentration by approximately 50% within 3 to 6 months of treatment. This decrease was predictable over the entire range of PSA values in patients with symptomatic BPH, although it may vary in individuals. Dutasteridecontaining treatment, including JALYN, may also cause decreases in serum PSA in the presence of prostate cancer. To interpret serial PSAs in men treated with a dutasteride-containing product, including JALYN, a new baseline PSA should be established at least 3 months after starting treatment and PSA monitored periodically thereafter. Any confirmed increase from the lowest PSA value while on a dutasteride-containing treatment, including JALYN, may signal the presence of prostate cancer and should be evaluated, even if PSA levels are still within the normal range for men not taking a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Noncompliance with JALYN may also affect PSA test results.
To interpret an isolated PSA value in a man treated with JALYN, for 3 months or more, the PSA value should be doubled for comparison with normal values in untreated men.
The free-to-total PSA ratio (percent free PSA) remains constant, even under the influence of dutasteride. If clinicians elect to use percent free PSA as an aid in the detection of prostate cancer in men receiving JALYN, no adjustment to its value appears necessary.
Increased Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer
In men aged 50 to 75 years with a prior negative biopsy for prostate cancer and a baseline PSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL taking dutasteride in the 4-year Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, there was an increased incidence of Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer compared with men taking placebo (dutasteride 1.0% versus placebo 0.5%) [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In a 7-year placebo-controlled clinical trial with another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride 5 mg, PROSCAR®), similar results for Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer were observed (finasteride 1.8% versus placebo 1.1%).
5 alpha-reductase inhibitors may increase the risk of development of high-grade prostate cancer. Whether the effect of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors to reduce prostate volume or trial-related factors impacted the results of these trials has not been established.
Evaluation for Other Urological Diseases
Prior to initiating treatment with JALYN, consideration should be given to other urological conditions that may cause similar symptoms. In addition, BPH and prostate cancer may coexist.
Exposure of Women—Risk to Male Fetus
JALYN Capsules should not be handled by a woman who is pregnant or who could become pregnant. Dutasteride is absorbed through the skin and could result in unintended fetal exposure. If a woman who is pregnant or could become pregnant comes in contact with a leaking capsule, the contact area should be washed immediately with soap and water [see Use in Specific Populations].
Priapism (persistent painful penile erection unrelated to sexual activity) has been associated (probably less than 1 in 50,000) with the use of alpha-adrenergic antagonists, including tamsulosin, which is a component of JALYN. Because this condition can lead to permanent impotence if not properly treated, patients should be advised about the seriousness of the condition.
Men being treated with a dutasteride-containing product, including JALYN, should not donate blood until at least 6 months have passed following their last dose. The purpose of this deferred period is to prevent administration of dutasteride to a pregnant female transfusion recipient.
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS) has been observed during cataract surgery in some patients on or previously treated with alpha adrenergic antagonists, including tamsulosin, which is a component of JALYN.
Most reports were in patients taking the alpha adrenergic antagonist when IFIS occurred, but in some cases, the alpha adrenergic antagonist had been stopped prior to surgery. In most of these cases, the alpha adrenergic antagonist had been stopped recently prior to surgery (2 to 14 days), but in a few cases, IFIS was reported after the patients had been off the alpha adrenergic antagonist for a longer period (5 weeks to 9 months). IFIS is a variant of small pupil syndrome and is characterized by the combination of a flaccid iris that billows in response to intraoperative irrigation currents, progressive intraoperative miosis despite preoperative dilation with standard mydriatic drugs, and potential prolapse of the iris toward the phacoemulsification incisions. The patient's ophthalmologist should be prepared for possible modifications to their surgical technique, such as the utilization of iris hooks, iris dilator rings, or viscoelastic substances.
IFIS may increase the risk of eye complications during and after the operation. The benefit of stopping alpha adrenergic antagonist therapy prior to cataract surgery has not been established. The initiation of therapy with tamsulosin in patients for whom cataract surgery is scheduled is not recommended.
In patients with sulfa allergy, allergic reaction to tamsulosin has been rarely reported. If a patient reports a serious or life-threatening sulfa allergy, caution is warranted when administering tamsulosin-containing products, including JALYN.
Effect on Semen Characteristics
The effects of dutasteride 0.5 mg/day on semen characteristics were evaluated in normal volunteers aged 18 to 52 (n = 27 dutasteride, n = 23 placebo) throughout 52 weeks of treatment and 24 weeks of post-treatment follow-up. At 52 weeks, the mean percent reductions from baseline in total sperm count, semen volume, and sperm motility were 23%, 26%, and 18%, respectively, in the dutasteride group when adjusted for changes from baseline in the placebo group. Sperm concentration and sperm morphology were unaffected. After 24 weeks of follow-up, the mean percent change in total sperm count in the dutasteride group remained 23% lower than baseline. While mean values for all semen parameters at all time-points remained within the normal ranges and did not meet predefined criteria for a clinically significant change (30%), 2 subjects in the dutasteride group had decreases in sperm count of greater than 90% from baseline at 52 weeks, with partial recovery at the 24-week follow-up. The clinical significance of dutasteride's effect on semen characteristics for an individual patient's fertility is not known.
The effects of tamsulosin hydrochloride on sperm counts or sperm function have not been evaluated.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Physicians should inform patients about the possible occurrence of symptoms related to orthostatic hypotension, such as dizziness and vertigo, and the potential risk of syncope when taking JALYN. Patients starting treatment with JALYN should be cautioned to avoid situations where injury could result should syncope occur (e.g., driving, operating machinery, performing hazardous tasks). Patients should sit or lie down at the first signs of orthostatic hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Physicians should inform patients that JALYN reduces serum PSA levels by approximately 50% within 3 to 6 months of therapy, although it may vary for each individual. For patients undergoing PSA screening, increases in PSA levels while on treatment with JALYN may signal the presence of prostate cancer and should be evaluated by a healthcare provider [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer
Physicians should inform patients that there was an increase in high-grade prostate cancer in men treated with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (which are indicated for BPH treatment), including dutasteride, which is a component of JALYN, compared with those treated with placebo in trials looking at the use of these drugs to reduce the risk of prostate cancer [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Exposure of Women—Risk to Male Fetus
Physicians should inform patients that JALYN Capsules should not be handled by a woman who is pregnant or who could become pregnant because of the potential for absorption of dutasteride and the subsequent potential risk to a developing male fetus. Dutasteride is absorbed through the skin and could result in unintended fetal exposure. If a pregnant woman or woman of childbearing potential comes in contact with leaking JALYN Capsules, the contact area should be washed immediately with soap and water [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations].
Instructions for Use
JALYN Capsules should be swallowed whole and not chewed, crushed, or opened. JALYN Capsules may become deformed and/or discolored if kept at high temperatures. If this occurs, capsules should not be used.
Physicians should inform patients about the possibility of priapism as a result of treatment with JALYN or other alpha adrenergic antagonist-containing medications. Patients should be informed that this reaction is extremely rare, but can lead to permanent erectile dysfunction if not brought to immediate medical attention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Physicians should inform men treated with JALYN that they should not donate blood until at least 6 months following their last dose to prevent pregnant women from receiving dutasteride through blood transfusion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Serum levels of dutasteride are detectable for 4 to 6 months after treatment ends [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS)
Physicians should advise patients considering cataract surgery to tell their ophthalmologist that they take or have taken JALYN, an alpha adrenergic antagonist-containing product [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
JALYN and AVODART are trademarks of GlaxoSmithKline. The other brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of GlaxoSmithKline. The makers of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse GlaxoSmithKline or its products.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No non-clinical studies have been conducted with JALYN. The following information is based on studies performed with dutasteride or tamsulosin.
Dutasteride: A 2-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice at doses of 3, 35, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day for males and 3, 35, and 250 mg/kg/day for females; an increased incidence of benign hepatocellular adenomas was noted at 250 mg/kg/day (290-fold the MRHD of a 0.5-mg daily dose) in female mice only. Two of the 3 major human metabolites have been detected in mice. The exposure to these metabolites in mice is either lower than in humans or is not known.
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in Han Wistar rats, at doses of 1.5, 7.5, and 53 mg/kg/day in males and 0.8, 6.3, and 15 mg/kg/day in females, there was an increase in Leydig cell adenomas in the testes at 135-fold the MRHD (53 mg/kg/day and greater). An increased incidence of Leydig cell hyperplasia was present at 52-fold the MRHD (male rat doses of 7.5 mg/kg/day and greater). A positive correlation between proliferative changes in the Leydig cells and an increase in circulating luteinizing hormone levels has been demonstrated with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and is consistent with an effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis following 5 alpha-reductase inhibition. At tumorigenic doses, luteinizing hormone levels in rats were increased by 167%. In this study, the major human metabolites were tested for carcinogenicity at approximately 1 to 3 times the expected clinical exposure.
Tamsulosin: In a rat carcinogenicity assay, no increases in tumor incidence was observed in rats administered up to 3 times the MRHD of 0.8 mg/day (based on AUC of animal doses up to 43 mg/kg/day in males and up to 52 mg/kg/day in females), with the exception of a modest increase in the frequency of mammary gland fibroadenomas in female rats receiving doses of 5.4 mg/kg or greater.
In a carcinogenicity assay, mice were administered up to 8 times the MRHD of tamsulosin (oral doses up to 127 mg/kg/day in males and 158 mg/kg/day in females). There were no significant tumor findings in male mice. Female mice treated for 2 years with the 2 highest doses of 45 and 158 mg/kg/day had statistically significant increases in the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas (P < 0.0001) and adenocarcinomas.
The increased incidences of mammary gland neoplasms in female rats and mice were considered secondary to tamsulosin-induced hyperprolactinemia. It is not known if tamsulosin elevates prolactin in humans. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is not known.
Dutasteride: Dutasteride was tested for genotoxicity in a bacterial mutagenesis assay (Ames test), a chromosomal aberration assay in CHO cells, and a micronucleus assay in rats. The results did not indicate any genotoxic potential of the parent drug. Two major human metabolites were also negative in either the Ames test or an abbreviated Ames test.
Tamsulosin: Tamsulosin produced no evidence of mutagenic potential in vitro in the Ames reverse mutation test, mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay, unscheduled DNA repair synthesis assay, and chromosomal aberration assays in CHO cells or human lymphocytes. There were no mutagenic effects in the in vivo sister chromatid exchange and mouse micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility
Dutasteride: Treatment of sexually mature male rats with dutasteride at 0.1- to 110-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 0.05, 10, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day for up to 31 weeks) resulted in dose- and time-dependent decreases in fertility; reduced cauda epididymal (absolute) sperm counts but not sperm concentration (at 50 and 500 mg/kg/day); reduced weights of the epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles; and microscopic changes in the male reproductive organs. The fertility effects were reversed by recovery week 6 at all doses, and sperm counts were normal at the end of a 14-week recovery period. The 5 alpha-reductase–related changes consisted of cytoplasmic vacuolation of tubular epithelium in the epididymides and decreased cytoplasmic content of epithelium, consistent with decreased secretory activity in the prostate and seminal vesicles. The microscopic changes were no longer present at recovery week 14 in the low-dose group and were partly recovered in the remaining treatment groups. Low levels of dutasteride (0.6 to 17 ng/mL) were detected in the serum of untreated female rats mated to males dosed at 10, 50, or 500 mg/kg/day for 29 to 30 weeks.
In a fertility study in female rats, oral administration of dutasteride at doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, and 30 mg/kg/day resulted in reduced litter size, increased embryo resorption and feminization of male fetuses (decreased anogenital distance) at 2- to 10-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day or greater). Fetal body weights were also reduced at less than 0.02-fold the MRHD in rats (0.5 mg/kg/day).
Tamsulosin: Studies in rats revealed significantly reduced fertility in males at approximately 50 times the MRHD based on AUC (single or multiple daily doses of 300 mg/kg/day of tamsulosin hydrochloride). The mechanism of decreased fertility in male rats is considered to be an effect of the compound on the vaginal plug formation possibly due to changes of semen content or impairment of ejaculation. The effects on fertility were reversible showing improvement by 3 days after a single dose and 4 weeks after multiple dosing. Effects on fertility in males were completely reversed within nine weeks of discontinuation of multiple dosing. Multiple doses of 0.2 and 16 times the MRHD (animal doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg/day tamsulosin hydrochloride) did not significantly alter fertility in male rats. Effects of tamsulosin on sperm counts or sperm function have not been evaluated.
Studies in female rats revealed significant reductions in fertility after single or multiple dosing with 300 mg/kg/day of the R-isomer or racemic mixture of tamsulosin hydrochloride, respectively. In female rats, the reductions in fertility after single doses were considered to be associated with impairments in fertilization. Multiple dosing with 10 or 100 mg/kg/day of the racemic mixture did not significantly alter fertility in female rats.
Estimates of exposure multiples comparing animal studies to the MRHD for dutasteride are based on clinical serum concentration at steady state.
Estimates of exposure multiples comparing animal studies to the MRHD for tamsulosin are based on AUC.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category X
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with JALYN or its individual components.
Dutasteride is contraindicated for use in women of childbearing potential and during pregnancy. Dutasteride is a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor that prevents conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone necessary for normal development of male genitalia. In animal reproduction and developmental toxicity studies, dutasteride inhibited normal development of external genitalia in male fetuses. Therefore, dutasteride may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If dutasteride is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking dutasteride, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Abnormalities in the genitalia of male fetuses is an expected physiological consequence of inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to DHT by 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. These results are similar to observations in male infants with genetic 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. Dutasteride is absorbed through the skin. To avoid potential fetal exposure, women who are pregnant or could become pregnant should not handle dutasteride-containing capsules, including JALYN Capsules. If contact is made with leaking capsules, the contact area should be washed immediately with soap and water [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Dutasteride is secreted into semen. The highest measured semen concentration of dutasteride in treated men was 14 ng/mL. Assuming exposure of a 50-kg woman to 5 mL of semen and 100% absorption, the woman's dutasteride concentration would be about 0.0175 ng/mL. This concentration is more than 100 times less than concentrations producing abnormalities of male genitalia in animal studies. Dutasteride is highly protein bound in human semen (greater than 96%), which may reduce the amount of dutasteride available for vaginal absorption.
In an embryo-fetal development study in female rats, oral administration of dutasteride at doses 10 times less than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 0.5 mg daily resulted in abnormalities of male genitalia in the fetus (decreased anogenital distance at 0.05 mg/kg/day), nipple development, hypospadias, and distended preputial glands in male offspring (at all doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, and 30 mg/kg/day). An increase in stillborn pups was observed at 111 times the MRHD, and reduced fetal body weight was observed at doses of about 15 times the MRHD (animal dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day). Increased incidences of skeletal variations considered to be delays in ossification associated with reduced body weight were observed at doses at about 56 times the MRHD (animal dose of 12.5 mg/kg/day).
In a rabbit embryo-fetal study, doses 28- to 93-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) were administered orally during the period of major organogenesis (gestation days 7 to 29) to encompass the late period of external genitalia development. Histological evaluation of the genital papilla of fetuses revealed evidence of feminization of the male fetus at all doses. A second embryo-fetal study in rabbits at 0.3- to 53-fold the expected clinical exposure (animal doses of 0.05, 0.4, 3.0, and 30 mg/kg/day) also produced evidence of feminization of the genitalia in male fetuses at all doses.
In an oral pre- and post-natal development study in rats, dutasteride doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, or 30 mg/kg/day were administered. Unequivocal evidence of feminization of the genitalia (i.e., decreased anogenital distance, increased incidence of hypospadias, nipple development) of male offspring occurred at 14- to 90-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day or greater). At 0.05-fold the expected clinical exposure (animal dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day), evidence of feminization was limited to a small, but statistically significant, decrease in anogenital distance. Animal doses of 2.5 to 30 mg/kg/day resulted in prolonged gestation in the parental females and a decrease in time to vaginal patency for female offspring and a decrease in prostate and seminal vesicle weights in male offspring. Effects on newborn startle response were noted at doses greater than or equal to 12.5 mg/kg/day. Increased stillbirths were noted at 30 mg/kg/day.
In an embryo-fetal development study, pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed intravenously to a dutasteride blood level comparable to the dutasteride concentration found in human semen. Dutasteride was administered on gestation days 20 to 100 at doses of 400, 780, 1,325, or 2,010 ng/day (12 monkeys/group). The development of male external genitalia of monkey offspring was not adversely affected. Reduction of fetal adrenal weights, reduction in fetal prostate weights, and increases in fetal ovarian and testis weights were observed at the highest dose tested in monkeys. Based on the highest measured semen concentration of dutasteride in treated men (14 ng/mL), these doses represent 0.8 to 16 times the potential maximum exposure of a 50-kg human female to 5 mL semen daily from a dutasteride-treated man, assuming 100% absorption. (These calculations are based on blood levels of parent drug which are achieved at 32 to 186 times the daily doses administered to pregnant monkeys on a ng/kg basis). Dutasteride is highly bound to proteins in human semen (greater than 96%), potentially reducing the amount of dutasteride available for vaginal absorption. It is not known whether rabbits or rhesus monkeys produce any of the major human metabolites.
Estimates of exposure multiples comparing animal studies to the MRHD for dutasteride are based on clinical serum concentration at steady state.
Administration of tamsulosin to pregnant female rats at dose levels up to approximately 50 times the human therapeutic AUC exposure (animal dose of 300 mg/kg/day) revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus. Administration of tamsulosin hydrochloride to pregnant rabbits at dose levels up to 50 mg/kg/day produced no evidence of fetal harm. However, because of the effect of dutasteride on the fetus, JALYN is contraindicated for use in pregnant women. Estimates of exposure multiples comparing animal studies to the MRHD for tamsulosin are based on AUC.
JALYN is contraindicated for use in women of childbearing potential, including nursing women. It is not known whether dutasteride or tamsulosin is excreted in human milk.
JALYN is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients. Safety and effectiveness of JALYN in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of 1,610 male subjects treated with coadministered dutasteride and tamsulosin in the CombAT trial, 58% of enrolled subjects were aged 65 years and older and 13% of enrolled subjects were aged 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these subjects and younger subjects but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
The effect of renal impairment on dutasteride and tamsulosin pharmacokinetics has not been studied using JALYN. Because no dosage adjustment is necessary for dutasteride or tamsulosin in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (10 ≤ CLcr < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² ), no dosage adjustment is necessary for JALYN in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment. However, patients with end-stage renal disease (CLcr < 10 mL/min/1.73 m² ) have not been studied [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The effect of hepatic impairment on dutasteride and tamsulosin pharmacokinetics has not been studied using JALYN. The following text reflects information available for the individual components.
The effect of hepatic impairment on dutasteride pharmacokinetics has not been studied. Because dutasteride is extensively metabolized, exposure could be higher in hepatically impaired patients. However, in a clinical trial where 60 subjects received 5 mg (10 times the therapeutic dose) daily for 24 weeks, no additional adverse events were observed compared with those observed at the therapeutic dose of 0.5 mg [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients with moderate hepatic impairment do not require an adjustment in tamsulosin dosage. Tamsulosin has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/13/2013
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