"The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is alerting doctors and other healthcare professionals to the possibility of atypical cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) associated with use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a relatively "...
(sitagliptin and metformin HCl) Extended-release Tablets
Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation. The risk increases with conditions such as sepsis, dehydration, excess alcohol intake, hepatic impairment, renal impairment, and acute congestive heart failure.
The onset of lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress.
Laboratory abnormalities include low pH, increased anion gap and elevated blood lactate. If acidosis is suspected, JANUMET XR (sitagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets should be discontinued and the patient hospitalized immediately. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
JANUMET XR tablets contain two oral antidiabetic medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes: sitagliptin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release.
Sitagliptin is an orally-active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme. Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate drug substance is used to manufacture JANUMET XR. Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is described chemically as 7-[(3R)-3-amino-1-oxo-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyl]-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-α]pyrazine phosphate (1:1) monohydrate with an empirical formula of C16H15F6N5O•H3PO4•H2O and a molecular weight of 523.32. The structural formula is:
Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is a white to off-white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble in water and N,N-dimethyl formamide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile; and insoluble in isopropanol and isopropyl acetate.
Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is a white to offwhite crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5•HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:
JANUMET XR consists of an extended-release metformin core tablet coated with an immediaterelease layer of sitagliptin. The sitagliptin layer is coated with a soluble polymeric film. JANUMET XR is available for oral administration as tablets containing 64.25 mg sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (equivalent to 50 mg sitagliptin as free base) and either 500 mg metformin hydrochloride extended-release (50 mg/500 mg) or 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride extended-release (50 mg/1000 mg). Additionally, JANUMET XR is available for oral administration as tablets containing 128.5 mg sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (equivalent to 100 mg sitagliptin as free base) and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride extended-release (100 mg/1000 mg).
All doses of JANUMET XR contain the following inactive ingredients: povidone, hypromellose, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, propyl gallate, polyethylene glycol, and kaolin. The JANUMET XR 50 mg/500 mg tablet contains the additional inactive ingredient microcrystalline cellulose. In addition, the film coating for all doses contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, titanium dioxide, FD&C #2/Indigo Carmine Aluminum Lake and carnauba wax. The JANUMET XR 50 mg/1000 mg tablet film coating also contains the inactive ingredient yellow iron oxide.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/24/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Janumet XR Information
- Janumet XR Drug Interactions Center: sitagliptin-metformin oral
- Janumet XR Side Effects Center
- Janumet XR FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
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