"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Kynamro (mipomersen sodium) injection as an addition to lipid-lowering medications and diet to treat patients with a rare type of high cholesterol called homozygous familial hypercholesterolemi"...
Risk Of Hepatotoxicity
JUXTAPID can cause elevations in transaminases and hepatic steatosis, as described below [see JUXTAPID REMS Program]. To what extent JUXTAPID-associated hepatic steatosis promotes the elevations in transaminases is unknown. Although cases of hepatic dysfunction (elevated transaminases with increase in bilirubin or INR) or hepatic failure have not been reported, there is concern that JUXTAPID could induce steatohepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis over several years. The clinical studies supporting the safety and efficacy of JUXTAPID in HoFH would have been unlikely to detect this adverse outcome given their size and duration [see Clinical Studies].
Elevation of Transaminases
Elevations in transaminases (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and/or aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) are associated with JUXTAPID. In the clinical trial, 10 (34%) of the 29 patients with HoFH had at least one elevation in ALT or AST ≥ 3x ULN, and 4 (14%) of the patients had at least one elevation in ALT or AST ≥ 5x ULN. There were no concomitant or subsequent clinically meaningful elevations in bilirubin, INR, or alkaline phosphatase [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
During the 78-week HoFH clinical trial, no patients discontinued prematurely because of elevated transaminases. Among the 19 patients who subsequently enrolled in the HoFH extension study, one discontinued because of increased transaminases that persisted despite several dose reductions, and one temporarily discontinued because of markedly elevated transaminases (ALT 24x ULN, AST 13x ULN) that had several possible causes, including a drug-drug interaction between JUXTAPID and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor clarithromycin [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Measure ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin before initiation of treatment with JUXTAPID [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. JUXTAPID is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment, or active liver disease, including unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases. If the baseline liver-related tests are abnormal, one may consider initiating JUXTAPID after an appropriate work-up and the baseline abnormalities are explained or resolved. During the first year, measure liver-related tests (ALT and AST, at a minimum) prior to each increase in dose or monthly, whichever occurs first. After the first year, do these tests at least every 3 months and before any increase in dose. Modify the dose of JUXTAPID if elevations of transaminases are observed and discontinue JUXTAPID for persistent or clinically significant elevations [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
If transaminase elevations are accompanied by clinical symptoms of liver injury (such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, jaundice, lethargy, flu-like symptoms), increases in bilirubin ≥ 2x ULN, or active liver disease, discontinue treatment with JUXTAPID and identify the probable cause.
JUXTAPID increases hepatic fat, with or without concomitant increases in transaminases. Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for progressive liver disease, including steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The long-term consequences of hepatic steatosis associated with JUXTAPID treatment are unknown. During the HoFH clinical trial, the median absolute increase in hepatic fat was 6% after both 26 weeks and 78 weeks of treatment, from 1% at baseline, measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Clinical data suggest that hepatic fat accumulation is reversible after stopping treatment with JUXTAPID, but whether histological sequelae remain is unknown, especially after long-term use; protocol liver biopsies were not performed in the HoFH clinical trial.
Alcohol may increase levels of hepatic fat and induce or exacerbate liver injury. It is recommended that patients taking JUXTAPID should not consume more than one alcoholic drink per day.
Caution should be exercised when JUXTAPID is used with other medications known to have potential for hepatotoxicity, such as isotretinoin, amiodarone, acetaminophen ( > 4 g/day for ≥ 3 days/week), methotrexate, tetracyclines, and tamoxifen. The effect of concomitant administration of JUXTAPID with other hepatotoxic medications is unknown. More frequent monitoring of liver-related tests may be warranted.
JUXTAPID has not been studied concomitantly with other LDL-lowering agents that can also increase hepatic fat. Therefore, the combined use of such agents is not recommended.
JUXTAPID REMS Program
Because of the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with JUXTAPID therapy, JUXTAPID is available through a restricted program under the REMS. Under the JUXTAPID REMS, only certified healthcare providers and pharmacies may prescribe and distribute JUXTAPID. Further information is available at www.JUXTAPIDREMSProgram.com or by telephone at 1-85JUXTAPID (1-855-898-2743).
JUXTAPID may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on findings of teratogenicity in rats and ferrets [see Use in Specific Populations]. Females of reproductive potential should have a negative pregnancy test before starting JUXTAPID and should use effective contraception during therapy with JUXTAPID [see Use in Specific Populations]. If oral contraceptives are used, the maximum recommended dosage of JUXTAPID is 30 mg daily [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Reduced Absorption Of Fat-Soluble Vitamins And Serum Fatty Acids
Given its mechanism of action in the small intestine, JUXTAPID may reduce the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients. In the HoFH clinical trial, patients were provided daily dietary supplements of vitamin E, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this trial, the median levels of serum vitamin E, ALA, linoleic acid, EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid decreased from baseline to Week 26 but remained above the lower limit of the reference range. Adverse clinical consequences of these reductions were not observed with JUXTAPID treatment of up to 78 weeks. Patients treated with JUXTAPID should take daily supplements that contain 400 international units vitamin E and at least 200 mg linoleic acid, 210 mg ALA, 110 mg EPA, and 80 mg DHA [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Patients with chronic bowel or pancreatic diseases that predispose to malabsorption may be at increased risk for deficiencies in these nutrients with use of JUXTAPID.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were reported by 27 (93%) of 29 patients in the HoFH clinical trial. Diarrhea occurred in 79% of patients, nausea in 65%, dyspepsia in 38%, and vomiting in 34%. Other reactions reported by at least 20% of patients include abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, abdominal distension, constipation, and flatulence [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions of severe intensity were reported by 6 (21%) of 29 patients in the HoFH clinical trial, with the most common being diarrhea (4 patients, 14%); vomiting (3 patients, 10%); and abdominal pain, distension, and/or discomfort (2 patients, 7%). Gastrointestinal reactions contributed to the reasons for early discontinuation from the trial for 4 (14%) patients.
Absorption of concomitant oral medications may be affected in patients who develop diarrhea or vomiting.
To reduce the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events, patients should adhere to a low-fat diet supplying < 20% of energy from fat and the dosage of JUXTAPID should be increased gradually [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Concomitant Use Of CYP3A4 Inhibitors
CYP3A4 inhibitors increase the exposure of lomitapide, with strong inhibitors increasing exposure approximately 27-fold. Concomitant use of moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with JUXTAPID is contraindicated [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. In the JUXTAPID clinical trials, one patient with HoFH developed markedly elevated transaminases (ALT 24x ULN, AST 13x ULN) within days of initiating the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor clarithromycin. If treatment with moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is unavoidable, JUXTAPID should be stopped during the course of treatment.
Grapefruit juice must be omitted from the diet while being treated with JUXTAPID.
Weak CYP3A4 inhibitors increase the exposure of lomitapide approximately 2-fold; therefore, JUXTAPID dosage should not exceed 30 mg daily when it is used concomitantly with these inhibitors, including atorvastatin and oral contraceptives [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of Myopathy With Concomitant Use Of Simvastatin Or Lovastatin
The risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, with simvastatin and lovastatin monotherapy is dose related. Lomitapide approximately doubles the exposure to simvastatin; therefore, it is recommended to reduce the dose of simvastatin by 50% when initiating JUXTAPID [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. While taking JUXTAPID, limit simvastatin dosage to 20 mg daily (or 40 mg daily for patients who have previously tolerated simvastatin 80 mg daily for at least one year without evidence of muscle toxicity). Refer to the simvastatin prescribing information for additional dosing recommendations.
Interaction between lovastatin and lomitapide has not been studied. However, the metabolizing enzymes and transporters responsible for the disposition of lovastatin and simvastatin are similar, suggesting that JUXTAPID may increase the exposure of lovastatin; therefore, reducing the dose of lovastatin should be considered when initiating JUXTAPID.
Risk Of Supratherapeutic Or Subtherapeutic Anticoagulation With Warfarin
JUXTAPID increases the plasma concentrations of warfarin. Increases in the dose of JUXTAPID may lead to supratherapeutic anticoagulation, and decreases in the dose of JUXTAPID may lead to subtherapeutic anticoagulation. Difficulty controlling INR contributed to early discontinuation from the HoFH clinical trial for one of five patients taking concomitant warfarin. Patients taking warfarin should undergo regular monitoring of the INR, especially after any changes in JUXTAPID dosage. The dose of warfarin should be adjusted as clinically indicated [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of Malabsorption With Rare Hereditary Disorders Of Galactose Intolerance
Patients with rare, hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should avoid JUXTAPID as this may result in diarrhea and malabsorption.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved labeling (Medication Guide)
Patients should be informed that a registry for patients taking JUXTAPID has been established in order to monitor and evaluate the long-term effects of JUXTAPID. Patients are encouraged to participate in the registry and should be informed that their participation is voluntary. For information regarding the registry program visit www.JUXTAPID.com or call 1-877-902-4099.
Advise patients of the following:
Risk of Hepatotoxicity
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- JUXTAPID can cause both elevations in transaminases and hepatic steatosis. Discuss with the patient the importance of monitoring of liver-related tests before taking JUXTAPID, prior to each dose escalation, and periodically thereafter.
- Patients should be advised of the potential for increased risk of liver injury if alcohol is consumed while taking JUXTAPID. It is recommended that patients taking JUXTAPID limit consumption to not more than one alcoholic drink per day.
- JUXTAPID is commonly associated with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Advise patients to promptly report these symptoms if they increase in severity, persist, or change in the character, as they might reflect liver injury. Patients should also report any other symptoms of possible liver injury, including fever, jaundice, lethargy, or flu-like symptoms.
JUXTAPID REMS Program
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- JUXTAPID is only available through a restricted program called JUXTAPID REMS Program and therefore, JUXTAPID is only available from certified pharmacies that are enrolled in the program.
Females of Reproductive Potential
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- JUXTAPID is contraindicated in pregnancy.
- Advise females of reproductive potential that they should have a negative pregnancy test before starting JUXTAPID and that they should use effective contraception while taking JUXTAPID. If oral contraceptives are initiated while taking JUXTAPID, the dose of JUXTAPID may require adjustment. Hormone absorption from oral contraceptives may be incomplete if vomiting or diarrhea occurs while taking JUXTAPID, warranting the use of additional contraceptive methods.
- Nursing Mothers: A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue JUXTAPID.
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Discuss with the patient the importance of taking daily supplements that contain 400 international units vitamin E and at least 200 mg linoleic acid, 210 mg alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 80 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Inform the patient that gastrointestinal adverse reactions are common with JUXTAPID. These include, but are not limited to, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain/discomfort, flatulence, and constipation. Strict adherence to a low-fat diet ( < 20% of total calories from fat) may reduce these reactions.
- Tell the patient that taking JUXTAPID with food may adversely impact gastrointestinal tolerability; therefore, they should take JUXTAPID at least 2 hours after the evening meal, swallowing each capsule whole.
- Absorption of oral medications may be affected in patients who develop diarrhea or vomiting. For example, hormone absorption from oral contraceptives may be incomplete, warranting the use of additional contraceptive methods. Patients who develop these symptoms should seek advice from their healthcare provider.
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]
- Tell the patient to omit grapefruit juice from his/her diet while on JUXTAPID.
- Because multiple drug-drug interactions have been described with JUXTAPID, advise the patient to tell their healthcare provider(s) about all medications, nutritional supplements, and vitamins that they are taking or may be taking while taking JUXTAPID.
- If a dose of JUXTAPID is missed, the normal dose should be taken at the usual time the next day. If dosing is interrupted for more than a week, tell the patient to contact their healthcare provider before restarting treatment.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a 2-year dietary carcinogenicity study in mice, lomitapide was administered at doses of 0.3, 1.5, 7.5, 15, or 45 mg/kg/day. There were statistically significant increases in the incidences of liver adenomas and carcinomas in males at doses ≥ 1.5 mg/kg/day ( ≥ 2-times the MRHD at 60 mg based on AUC) and in females at ≥ 7.5 mg/kg/day ( ≥ 10-times the human exposure at 60 mg based on AUC). Incidences of small intestinal carcinomas in males and combined adenomas and carcinomas in females were significantly increased at doses ≥ 15 mg/kg/day ( ≥ 23-times the human exposure at 60 mg based on AUC).
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in rats, lomitapide was administered by oral gavage for up to 99 weeks at doses of 0.25, 1.7, or 7.5 mg/kg/day in males and 0.03, 0.35, or 2.0 mg/kg/day in females. While the design of the study was suboptimal, there were no statistically significant drug-related increases in tumor incidences at exposures up to 6-times (males) and 8-times (females) higher than human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC.
Lomitapide did not exhibit genotoxic potential in a battery of studies, including the in vitro Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay, an in vitro cytogenetics assay using primary human lymphocytes, and an oral micronucleus study in rats.
Lomitapide had no effect on fertility in rats at doses up to 5 mg/kg/day at systemic exposures estimated to be 4-times (females) and 5-times (males) higher than in humans at 60 mg based on AUC.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category X [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to JUXTAPID during pregnancy. For additional information visit www.JUXTAPID.com or call the Global Lomitapide Pregnancy Exposure Registry (PER) at 1-877-902-4099. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to call the PER at 1-877-902-4099 to enroll patients who become pregnant during JUXTAPID treatment.
JUXTAPID is contraindicated during pregnancy because JUXTAPID may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Lomitapide was teratogenic in rats and ferrets at exposures estimated to be less than human therapeutic exposure at 60 mg (AUC = 67 ng*h/mL) when administered during organogenesis. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in rabbits at 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg based on body surface area. Embryo-fetal lethality was observed in rabbits at 6-times the MRHD. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Oral gavage doses of 0.04, 0.4, or 4 mg/kg/day lomitapide given to pregnant rats from gestation day 6 through organogenesis were associated with fetal malformations at ≥ 2-times human exposure at the MRHD (60 mg) based on plasma AUC comparisons. Fetal malformations included umbilical hernia, gastroschisis, imperforate anus, alterations in heart shape and size, limb malrotations, skeletal malformations of the tail, and delayed ossification of cranial, vertebral and pelvic bones.
Oral gavage doses of 1.6, 4, 10, or 25 mg/kg/day lomitapide given to pregnant ferrets from gestation day 12 through organogenesis were associated with both maternal toxicity and fetal malformations at exposures that ranged from less than the human exposure at the MRHD to 5times the human exposure at the MRHD. Fetal malformations included umbilical hernia, medially rotated or short limbs, absent or fused digits on paws, cleft palate, open eye lids, low-set ears, and kinked tail.
Oral gavage doses of 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg/day lomitapide given to pregnant rabbits from gestation day 6 through organogenesis were not associated with adverse effects at systemic exposures up to 3-times the MRHD of 60 mg based on body surface area comparison. Treatment at doses of ≥ 20 mg/kg/day, ≥ 6-times the MRHD, resulted in embryo-fetal lethality.
Pregnant female rats given oral gavage doses of 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg/day lomitapide from gestation day 7 through termination of nursing on lactation day 20 were associated with malformations at systemic exposures equivalent to human exposure at the MRHD of 60 mg based on AUC. Increased pup mortality occurred at 4-times the MRHD.
It is not known whether lomitapide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lomitapide in a 2-year mouse study, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of JUXTAPID did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dosing for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Females Of Reproductive Potential
JUXTAPID may cause fetal harm [see Use in Specific Populations]. Females who become pregnant during JUXTAPID therapy should stop JUXTAPID immediately and notify their healthcare provider.
Females of reproductive potential should have a negative pregnancy test before starting JUXTAPID.
Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during JUXTAPID therapy. The recommended maximum dosage of JUXTAPID is 30 mg daily with concomitant use of oral contraceptives, since oral contraceptives are weak CYP3A4 inhibitors [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Hormone absorption from oral contraceptives may be incomplete if vomiting or diarrhea occurs while taking JUXTAPID, warranting the use of additional contraceptive methods [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis should not exceed 40 mg daily since lomitapide exposure in these patients increased approximately 50% compared with healthy volunteers. Effects of mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, including those with end-stage renal disease not yet receiving dialysis, on lomitapide exposure have not been studied. However, it is possible that patients with renal impairment who are not yet receiving dialysis may experience increases in lomitapide exposure exceeding 50% [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A) should not exceed 40 mg daily since the lomitapide exposure in these patients increased approximately 50% compared with healthy volunteers. JUXTAPID is contraindicated in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) or severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment since the lomitapide exposure in patients with moderate hepatic impairment increased 164% compared with healthy volunteers [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/14/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Juxtapid Information
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