"New national guidelines on antibiotic stewardship take a more practical approach to the issue, offering pragmatic advice and endorsing programs tailored to each institution's unique situation.
"I hope that these guidelines will set a "...
Mechanism Of Action
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations to C1-esterase-inhibitor (C1-INH) located on Chromosome 11q and inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. HAE is characterized by low levels of C1-INH activity and low levels of C4. C1-INH functions to regulate the activation of the complement and intrinsic coagulation (contact system pathway) and is a major endogenous inhibitor of plasma kallikrein. The kallikrein-kinin system is a complex proteolytic cascade involved in the initiation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways. One critical aspect of this pathway is the conversion of High Molecular Weight (HMW) kininogen to bradykinin by the protease plasma kallikrein. In HAE, normal regulation of plasma kallikrein activity and the classical complement cascade is therefore not present. During attacks, unregulated activity of plasma kallikrein results in excessive bradykinin generation. Bradykinin is a vasodilator which is thought by some to be responsible for the characteristic HAE symptoms of localized swelling, inflammation, and pain.
KALBITOR is a potent (Ki = 25 pM), selective, reversible inhibitor of plasma kallikrein. KALBITOR binds to plasma kallikrein and blocks its binding site, inhibiting the conversion of HMW kininogen to bradykinin. By directly inhibiting plasma kallikrein, KALBITOR reduces the conversion of HMW kininogen to bradykinin and thereby treats symptoms of the disease during acute episodic attacks of HAE.
No exposure-response relationships for KALBITOR to components of the complement or kallikrein-kinin pathways have been established.
The effect of KALBITOR on activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was measured because of potential effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Prolongation of aPTT has been observed following intravenous dosing of KALBITOR at doses ≥ 20 mg/m² . At 80 mg administered intravenously in healthy subjects, aPTT values were prolonged approximately two-fold over baseline values and returned to normal by 4 hours post-dose.
For patients taking KALBITOR, no significant QT prolongation has been seen. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (EDEMA4) studying the 30 mg subcutaneous dose versus placebo, 12-lead ECGs were obtained at baseline, 2 hours and 4 hours post-dose (covering the time of expected Cmax), and at follow-up (day 7). ECGs were evaluated for PR interval, QRS complex, and QTc interval. KALBITOR had no significant effect on the QTc interval, heart rate, or any other components of the ECG.
Following the administration of a single 30 mg subcutaneous dose of KALBITOR to healthy subjects, a mean (± standard deviation) maximum plasma concentration of 586 ± 106 ng/mL was observed approximately 2 to 3 hours post-dose. The mean area under the concentration-time curve was 3017 ± 402 ng*hr/mL. Following administration, plasma concentration declined with a mean elimination half-life of 2.0 ± 0.5 hours. Plasma clearance was 153 ± 20 mL/min and the volume of distribution was 26.4 ± 7.8 L. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, body weight, age, and gender were not found to affect KALBITOR exposure significantly. Ecallantide is a small protein (7054 Da) and renal elimination in the urine of treated subjects has been demonstrated.
No pharmacokinetic data are available in patients or subjects with hepatic or renal impairment.
The safety and efficacy of KALBITOR to treat acute attacks of hereditary angioedema in adolescents and adults were evaluated in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (EDEMA4 and EDEMA3) in 168 patients with HAE. Patients having an attack of hereditary angioedema, at any anatomic location, with at least 1 moderate or severe symptom, were treated with 30 mg subcutaneous KALBITOR or placebo. Because patients could participate in both trials, a total of 143 unique patients participated. Of the 143 patients, 94 were female, 123 were Caucasian, and the mean age was 36 years (range 11-77). There were 64 patients with abdominal attacks, 55 with peripheral attacks, and 24 with laryngeal attacks.
In both trials, the effects of KALBITOR were evaluated using the Mean Symptom Complex Severity (MSCS) score and the Treatment Outcome Score (TOS). These endpoints evaluated attack severity (MSCS) and patient response to treatment (TOS) for an acute HAE attack.
MSCS score is a point-in-time measure of symptom severity. At baseline, and post-dosing at 4 hours and 24 hours, patients rated the severity of each affected symptom on a categorical scale (0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe). Patient-reported severity was based on each patient's assessment of symptom impact on their ability to perform routine activities. Ratings were averaged to obtain the MSCS score. The endpoint was reported as the change in MSCS score from baseline. A decrease in MSCS score reflected an improvement in symptom severity; the maximum possible change toward improvement was -3.
TOS is a measure of symptom response to treatment. At 4 hours and 24 hours post-dosing, patient assessment of response for each anatomic site of attack involvement was recorded on a categorical scale (significant improvement , improvement , same , worsening [-50], significant worsening [-100]). The response at each anatomic site was weighted by baseline severity and then the weighted scores across all involved sites were averaged to calculate the TOS. A TOS value > 0 reflected an improvement in symptoms from baseline. The maximum possible score was +100.
EDEMA4 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 96 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive KALBITOR 30 mg subcutaneous or placebo for acute attacks of HAE. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in MSCS score at 4 hours, and the TOS at 4 hours was a key secondary endpoint. Patients treated with KALBITOR demonstrated a greater decrease from baseline in the MSCS than placebo and a greater TOS than patients with placebo and the results were statistically significant (Table 2). At 24 hours, patients treated with KALBITOR also demonstrated a greater decrease from baseline in the MSCS than placebo (-1.5 vs. -1.1; p = 0.04) and a greater TOS (89 vs. 55, p = 0.03).
Table 2: Change in MSCS Score and TOS at 4 Hours
|Change in MSCS Score at 4 Hours|
|95% CI||0. - .0, -||-0.6, -0.1||-1.4, -0.8,||-0.8, -0.4|
|TOS at 4 Hours|
|95% CI||39, 68||-12, 28||49, 76||17, 54|
|MSCS: Mean Symptom Complex Severity
TOS: Treatment Outcome Score
CI: confidence interval
More patients in the placebo group (24/48, 50%) required medical intervention to treat unresolved symptoms within 24 hours compared to the KALBITOR-treated group (16/48, 33%).
Some patients reported improvement following a second 30 mg subcutaneous dose of KALBITOR, administered within 24 hours following the initial dose for symptom persistence or relapse, but efficacy was not systematically assessed for the second dose.
EDEMA3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 72 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive KALBITOR or placebo for acute attacks of HAE. EDEMA3 was similar in design to EDEMA4 with the exception of the order of the prespecified efficacy endpoints. In EDEMA3, the primary endpoint was the TOS at 4 hours, and the key secondary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in MSCS at 4 hours. As in EDEMA4, patients treated with KALBITOR demonstrated a greater decrease from baseline in the MSCS than placebo and a greater TOS than patients treated with placebo and the results were statistically significant (Table 2).
In addition, more patients in the placebo group (13/36, 36%) required medical intervention to treat unresolved symptoms within 24 hours compared to the KALBITOR-treated group (5/36, 14%).
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/18/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Kalbitor Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find out what women really need.