"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Tivicay (dolutegravir), a new drug to treat HIV-1 infection.
Tivicay is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor that interferes with one of the enzymes necessary for HIV to multiply. "...
Overdoses with KALETRA oral solution have been reported. One of these reports described fatal cardiogenic shock in a 2.1 kg infant who received a single dose of 6.5 mL of KALETRA oral solution (520 mg lopinavir, approximately 10-fold above the recommended lopinavir dose) nine days prior. The following events have been reported in association with unintended overdoses in preterm neonates: complete AV block, cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Healthcare professionals should be aware that KALETRA oral solution is highly concentrated and therefore, should pay special attention to accurate calculation of the dose of KALETRA, transcription of the medication order, dispensing information and dosing instructions to minimize the risk for medication errors and overdose. This is especially important for infants and young children.
KALETRA oral solution contains 42.4% alcohol (v/v) and 15.3% propylene glycol (w/v). Ingestion of the product over the recommended dose by an infant or a young child could result in significant toxicity and could potentially be lethal.
Human experience of acute overdosage with KALETRA is limited. Treatment of overdose with KALETRA should consist of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. There is no specific antidote for overdose with KALETRA. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by gastric lavage. Administration of activated charcoal may also be used to aid in removal of unabsorbed drug. Since lopinavir is highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in significant removal of the drug. However, dialysis can remove both alcohol and propylene glycol in the case of overdose with KALETRA oral solution.
- KALETRA is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, urticaria, angioedema) to any of its ingredients, including ritonavir.
- Co-administration of KALETRA is contraindicated with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening reactions.
- Co-administration of KALETRA is contraindicated with potent CYP3A inducers where significantly reduced lopinavir plasma concentrations may be associated with the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance and cross-resistance. These drugs are listed in Table 3.
Table 3: Drugs That are Contraindicated with KALETRA
|Drug Class||Drugs Within Class That are Contraindicated with KALETRA||Clinical Comments|
|Alpha 1-Adrenoreceptor Antagonist||Alfuzosin||Potentially increased alfuzosin concentrations can result in hypotension.|
|Antimycobacterial||Rifampin||May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to KALETRA or to the class of protease inhibitors or other co-administered antiretroviral agents [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].|
|Ergot Derivatives||Dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine||Potential for acute ergot toxicity characterized by peripheral vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues.|
|GI Motility Agent||Cisapride||Potential for cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Herbal Products||St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum)||May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to KALETRA or to the class of protease inhibitors.|
|HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors||Lovastatin, simvastatin||Potential for myopathy including rhabdomyolysis.|
|PDE5 Enzyme Inhibitor||Sildenafila (Revatio®) when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension||A safe and effective dose has not been established when used with KALETRA. There is an increased potential for sildenafil-associated adverse events, including visual abnormalities, hypotension, prolonged erection, and syncope [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].|
|Neuroleptic||Pimozide||Potential for cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Sedative/Hypnotics||Triazolam; orally administered midazolamb||Prolonged or increased sedation or respiratory depression.|
|a see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Table 8 for
co-administration of sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction.
bsee DRUG INTERACTIONS, Table 8 for parenterally administered midazolam.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/21/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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