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Karbinal ER

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/30/2017
Drug Description

Karbinal™ ER
(carbinoxamine maleate) Extended-release Oral Suspension

DESCRIPTION

Each 5 mL of Karbinal ER Extended-release Oral Suspension contains carbinoxamine complexed with polistirex equivalent to 4 mg carbinoxamine maleate and the following inactive ingredients: citric acid anhydrous, strawberry-banana flavor, glycerin, high fructose corn syrup, methylparaben, modified food starch, polysorbate 80, polyvinyl acetate, povidone, propylparaben, purified water, sodium metabisulfite, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, sucrose, triacetin, and xanthan gum.

Carbinoxamine maleate is freely soluble in water. The chemical name is 2-[(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyridinylmethoxy]- N, N-dimethylethanamine (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1), which has the following structure:

Karbinal™ ER (carbinoxamine maleate) - Structural Formula Illustration

The drug-polistirex complex is formed with the active ingredient (carbinoxamine maleate, USP) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, USP, which has the following structure:

Polistirex - Structural Formula Illustration

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

Karbinal ER Extended-release Oral Suspension is an H1 receptor antagonist indicated for the symptomatic treatment of:

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The dosage of Karbinal ER should be individualized based on the severity of the condition and the response of the patient. Start with lower doses and increase as needed and tolerated.

Administer Karbinal ER by the oral route only. Measure Karbinal ER with an accurate milliliter measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage. A pharmacist can provide an appropriate measuring device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Adults and Adolescents 12 years of age and older: 7.5 mL to 20 mL (6 to 16 mg) every 12 hours Children 2 to 11 years of age (approximately 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg/day):

2 to 3 years: 3.75 mL to 5 mL (3 to 4 mg) every 12 hours

4 to 5 years: 3.75 mL to 10 mL (3 to 8 mg) very 12 hours

6 to 11 years: 7.5 mL to 15 mL (6 to 12 mg) every 12 hours

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

Extended-release oral suspension containing 4 mg carbinoxamine maleate per 5 mL

Storage And Handling

Karbinal ER contains 4 mg carbinoxamine maleate per 5 mL. It is a light beige to tan viscous suspension with strawberry banana flavor and is supplied as follows:

NDC 13551-101-05 Bottles of 16 fl oz (480 mL)
NDC 13551-101-01 Bottles of 1 fl oz (30 mL)

Physician Samples

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Dispense in tight, light-resistant container with child-resistant closure.

Distributed by: Charlotte, NC 28210 www.fsclabs.com.Manufactured by: Tris Pharma, Inc. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852. Revised: Nov 2013

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

Use of Karbinal ER may result in decreased mental alertness with impaired mental or physical abilities [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

The most frequent adverse reactions include: sedation, sleepiness, dizziness, disturbed coordination, epigastric distress, and thickening of bronchial

secretions. In clinical use, younger children and older adults may be particularly sensitive to adverse reactions [see Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use].

The following adverse reactions, listed by body system, have been identified in case reports and during the use of carbinoxamine in observational studies. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body as a Whole: Urticaria, drug rash, anaphylactic shock, photosensitivity, excessive perspiration, chills, dryness of mouth, nose and throat.

Cardiovascular: Hypotension, headache, palpitations, tachycardia, extrasystoles.

Central Nervous System: Fatigue, confusion, restlessness, excitation, nervousness, tremor, irritability, insomnia, euphoria, paresthesia, blurred vision, diplopia, vertigo, tinnitus, acute labyrinthitis, hysteria, neuritis, convulsions.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation.

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.

Laboratory: Increase in uric acid levels.

Respiratory: Tightness of chest and wheezing, nasal stuffiness.

Urogenital: Urinary frequency, difficult urination, urinary retention, early menses.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Use of Karbinal ER is contraindicated in patients who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which prolong and intensify the anticholinergic (drying) effects of antihistamines.

Avoid use of Karbinal ER with alcohol and other CNS depressants (hypnotics, sedatives, tranquilizers,etc.) due to additive effects.

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Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Pediatric Mortality

Deaths have been reported in children less than 2 years of age who were taking carbinoxamine containing drug products; therefore, Karbinal ER is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age.

Activities Requiring Mental Alertness

Karbinal ER may produce marked drowsiness and impair the mental or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery. Advise patients to avoid engaging in hazardous tasks requiring mental alertness and motor coordination after ingestion of Karbinal ER. Avoid concurrent use of Karbinal ER with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants because additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur.

Concomitant Medical Conditions

Karbinal ER has anticholinergic (atropine-like) properties and, therefore, should be used with caution in patients with: increased intraocular pressure, narrow angle glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stenosing peptic ulcer, symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy, bladder neck obstruction, or pyloroduodenal obstruction.

Allergic Reactions Due To Sulfites

Karbinal ER contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions, including anaphylaxis and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes, in susceptible individuals. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic individuals.

Dosing

Advise patients to measure Karbinal ER with an accurate milliliter measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage. A pharmacist can recommend an appropriate measuring device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

No long-term studies in animals have been performed to determine the possible effects of carbinoxamine on carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and fertility.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproductive studies have not been conducted with carbinoxamine maleate. It is also not known whether Karbinal ER can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Karbinal ER should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Labor And Delivery

The effect of Karbinal ER on labor and delivery is not known.

Nursing Mother

Because of the risk of mortality in infants given carbinoxamine-containing drugs, use of Karbinal ER is contraindicated in nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use

Deaths have been reported in children younger than 2 years of age who were taking carbinoxaminecontaining drug products. Therefore, Karbinal ER is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age and in nursing mothers. Carbinoxamine may diminish mental alertness or produce sedation in children. Paradoxical reactions with excitation are more likely in younger children.

Geriatric Use

Karbinal ER may cause dizziness, hypotension, confusion, or over-sedation in the elderly. Start elderly patients on lower doses and observe closely.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

Overdosage with carbinoxamine may cause central nervous system depression or stimulation, hallucinations, convulsions, and death. Atropinelike signs and symptoms – dry mouth; fixed, dilated pupils; flushing; and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur.

The treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of Karbinal ER and institution of symptomatic and supportive therapy. Vital signs (including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and temperature) and EKG should be monitored. Induction of vomiting is not recommended. Activated charcoal should be given and gastric lavage should be considered after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening amount of drug. In the presence of severe anticholinergic effects, physostigmine may be useful. Vasopressors may be used to treat hypotension.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Children Less Than 2 Years Of Age

Karbinal ER is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age because deaths have been reported in this age group [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Nursing Mothers

Karbinal ER is contraindicated in nursing mothers because of the risk of mortality in infants given carbinoxamine-containing products [see Use in Specific Populations].

Hypersensitivity

Karbinal ER is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to carbinoxamine maleate or any of the inactive ingredients in Karbinal ER [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Monoamine Oxidase inhibitors

Karbinal ER is contraindicated in patients who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Carbinoxamine is an H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) that exhibits anticholinergic (drying) and sedative properties.

Antihistamines compete with histamine for receptor sites on effector cells.

Pharmacokinetics

Karbinal ER after single-dose administration of 16 mg was bioequivalent to the reference carbinoxamine immediate-release oral solution after the administration of two doses of 8 mg six hours apart under fasting conditions. The carbinoxamine mean (SD) peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 28.7 (5.3) ng/mL at 6.7 hours after Karbinal ER administration. The plasma half-life of carbinoxamine was 17.0 hours. There was no effect of food on the pharmacokinetic parameters.

Karbinal ER after multiple-dose administration of 16 mg every 12 hours for 8 days was bioequivalent to the reference carbinoxamine immediate-release oral solution after multiple-dose administration of 8 mg every 6 hours. The mean (SD) steady-state Cmax was 72.9 (24.4) ng/mL at 5.6 hours after Karbinal ER administration. Carbinoxamine mean (SD) minimum plasma concentration at steady-state was 51.8 (20.3) ng/mL.

Clinical Studies

The efficacy and safety of Karbinal ER is based on demonstration of bioequivalence to the immediaterelease reference product [see Pharmacokinetics].

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

Dosing

Advise patients to measure Karbinal ER with an accurate milliliter measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Activities Requiring Mental Alertness

Advise patients to use caution when driving a motor vehicle or operating machinery. Karbinal ER may produce marked drowsiness and impair the mental or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Alcohol, Sedatives, And Tranquilizers

Advise patients to avoid the use of alcoholic beverages, sedatives, and tranquilizers while taking Karbinal ER because additional reduction in mental alertness may occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].

MAOIs

Advise patients to not use MAOIs while taking Karbinal ER. MAOIs may prolong and intensify the anticholinergic (drying) effects [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].

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