"People with type 2 diabetes fall into three distinct groups, say researchers who have analyzed genotypes and data pulled from electronic health records (EHRs).
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Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation during treatment with KAZANO and is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (more than 5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels of more than 5 mcg/mL are generally found.
The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin HCl is very low (approximately 0.03 cases per 1000 patient-years, with approximately 0.015 fatal cases per 1000 patient-years). In more than 20,000 patient-years' exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there were no reports of lactic acidosis. Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal impairment, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia due to unstable or acute failure, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient's age. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking metformin. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. Metformin treatment should not be initiated in any patients unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, metformin should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic impairment. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake when taking metformin, because alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism. In addition, metformin should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure necessitating restricted intake of food or fluids. Use of topiramate, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in epilepsy and migraine prophylaxis may frequently cause dose-dependent metabolic acidosis (in controlled trials, 32% and 67% for adjunctive treatment in adult and pediatric patients, respectively, and 15% to 25% for monotherapy of epilepsy, with decrease in serum bicarbonate to less than 20 mEq/L; 3% and 11% for adjunctive treatment in adult and pediatric patients, respectively, and 1% to 7% for monotherapy of epilepsy, with decrease in serum bicarbonate to less than 17 mEq/L) and may exacerbate the risk of metformin-induced lactic acidosis [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis.
Patients should be educated to promptly report these symptoms should they occur. If present, KAZANO should be withdrawn until lactic acidosis is ruled out. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, blood pH, lactate levels and blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of metformin, GI symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to recur. Later occurrence of GI symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than 5 mmol/L in patients taking metformin do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity or technical problems in sample handling.
Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking metformin, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients taking alogliptin. After initiation of KAZANO, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, alogliptin should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using KAZANO.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with alogliptin. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue KAZANO, assess for other potential causes for the event and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema to another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with KAZANO.
There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking alogliptin, although the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In randomized controlled studies, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were observed: 1.3% in alogliptin-treated patients and 1.5% in all comparator-treated patients.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may have fatty liver disease, which may cause liver test abnormalities, and they may also have other forms of liver disease, many of which can be treated or managed. Therefore, obtaining a liver test panel and assessing the patient before initiating KAZANO therapy is recommended. Because impaired hepatic function has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis with use of metformin, KAZANO should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have clinically significant liver enzyme elevations and if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, KAZANO should be interrupted and investigation done to establish the probable cause. KAZANO should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
Monitoring Of Renal Function
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment. Therefore, KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with renal impairment.
Before initiation of KAZANO therapy and at least annually thereafter, renal function should be assessed and verified as normal. In patients in whom development of renal dysfunction is anticipated, renal function should be assessed more frequently and KAZANO discontinued if evidence of renal impairment is present. Metformin treatment should not be initiated in patients ≥ 80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis.
Use of Concomitant Medications that May Affect Renal Function or Metformin Disposition
Concomitant medication(s) that may affect renal function or result in significant hemodynamic change or may interfere with the disposition of metformin, such as cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], should be used with caution.
Radiological Studies and Surgical Procedures
Radiological studies involving the use of intravascular iodinated contrast materials (for example, intravenous urogram, intravenous cholangiography, angiography and computed tomography) can lead to acute alteration of renal function and have been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin. Therefore, in patients in whom any such study is planned, KAZANO should be temporarily discontinued at the time of or prior to the procedure and withheld for 48 hours subsequent to the procedure and reinstituted only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
KAZANO therapy should be temporarily suspended for any surgical procedure (except minor procedures not associated with restricted intake of food and fluids) and should not be restarted until the patient's oral intake has resumed and renal function has been evaluated as normal.
Cardiovascular collapse (shock) from whatever cause, acute congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and other conditions characterized by hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur in patients on KAZANO therapy, the drug should be promptly discontinued.
Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients, therefore, should be warned against excessive alcohol intake while receiving KAZANO.
Vitamin B12 Levels
In controlled, 29-week clinical trials of immediate-release metformin, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on KAZANO, and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at two- to three-year intervals may be useful.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with KAZANO.
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated or malnourished patients and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking β-adrenergic blocking drugs.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced a relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with KAZANO or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Medication Guide).
- Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of KAZANO.
- The risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue KAZANO immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgias, malaise, unusual somnolence or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of KAZANO, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to recur. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
- Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during use of alogliptin. Patients should be informed that persistent, severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue KAZANO and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
- Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during use of alogliptin and metformin. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue KAZANO and seek medical advice promptly.
- Patients should be informed that postmarketing reports of liver injury, sometimes fatal, have been reported during use of alogliptin. If signs or symptoms of liver injury occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue KAZANO and seek medical advice promptly.
- Patients should be informed about the importance of regular testing of renal function and hematological parameters when receiving treatment with KAZANO.
- Patients should be counseled against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving KAZANO.
- Inform patients that hypoglycemia can occur, particularly when an insulin secretagogue or insulin is used in combination with KAZANO. Explain the risks, symptoms and appropriate management of hypoglycemia.
- Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs.
- Instruct patients to take KAZANO only as prescribed twice daily. KAZANO should be taken with food. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
- Patients should be informed that the tablets must never be split.
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting KAZANO therapy and to reread each time the prescription is refilled. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if an unusual symptom develops or if a symptom persists or worsens.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or impairment of fertility studies have been conducted with KAZANO. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with alogliptin or metformin individually.
Rats were administered oral doses of 75, 400 and 800 mg/kg alogliptin for two years. No drug-related tumors were observed up to 75 mg/kg or approximately 32 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure. At higher doses (approximately 308 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg), a combination of thyroid C-cell adenomas and carcinomas increased in male but not female rats. No drug-related tumors were observed in mice after administration of 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg alogliptin for two years, or up to approximately 51 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure.
Alogliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with and without metabolic activation, in the Ames test with S. typhimurium and E. coli or the cytogenetic assay in mouse lymphoma cells. Alogliptin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus study.
In a fertility study in rats, alogliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating or fertility, at doses up to 500 mg/kg, or approximately 172 times the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg, respectively. These doses are both approximately four times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats.
There was an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg. There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells) or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg, which is approximately three times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with KAZANO or its individual components. Based on animal data, KAZANO is not predicted to increase the risk of developmental abnormalities. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human risk and exposure, KAZANO, like other antidiabetic medications, should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
No treatment-related fetal abnormalities occurred following concomitant administration of 100 mg/kg alogliptin with 150 mg/kg metformin to pregnant rats, or approximately 28 and two times the clinical dose of alogliptin (25 mg) and metformin (2000 mg), respectively (based on AUC).
Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses of up to 200 and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, respectively, the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Doses of alogliptin up to 250 mg/kg (approximately 95 times clinical exposure based on AUC) given to pregnant rats from gestation Day 6 to lactation Day 20 did not harm the developing embryo or adversely affect growth and development of offspring.
Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.
Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg, which represents an exposure of about two and six times the MRHD dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Metformin HCl should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly needed.
No studies have been conducted with the combined components of KAZANO. In studies performed with the individual components, both alogliptin and metformin are secreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether alogliptin and/or metformin are secreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when KAZANO is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of KAZANO in pediatric patients have not been established.
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function. Because metformin is contraindicated in patients with renal impairment, carefully monitor renal function in the elderly and use KAZANO with caution as age increases [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Of the total number of patients (N = 2095) in clinical safety and efficacy studies, 343 (16.4%) patients were 65 years and older and 37 (1.8%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. While this and other reported clinical experiences have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be excluded.
Of the total number of patients (N=8507) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with alogliptin, 2064 (24.3%) patients were 65 years and older and 341 (4%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients.
Controlled studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
Metformin should only be used in patients with normal renal function. The initial and maintenance dosing of metformin should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/12/2015
Additional Kazano Information
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