"Miriam E. Tucker
Medscape Medical News
The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the empagliflozin/linagliptin combination Glyxambi (Boehringer Ingelheim/Eli Lilly) as adjunctive treatment to diet and "...
There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metforminassociated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (greater than 5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate: pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.
If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of KAZANO. In KAZANO-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.
Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue KAZANO and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.
For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below:
The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
- Before initiating KAZANO, obtain an eGFR.
- KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m².
- KAZANO is not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m² because these patients require a lower dosage of alogliptin than what is available in the fixed combination KAZANO product.
- Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking KAZANO. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.
The concomitant use of KAZANO with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation (e.g. cationic drugs) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.
Age 65 Or Greater
The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Use in Specific Populations].
Radiological Studies With Contrast
Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop KAZANO at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart KAZANO if renal function is stable.
Surgery And Other Procedures
Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. KAZANO should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.
Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue KAZANO.
Excessive Alcohol Intake
Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving KAZANO.
Patients with hepatic impairment have developed with cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of KAZANO in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
Acute pancreatitis has been reported in the postmarketing setting and in randomized clinical trials. In glycemic control trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, acute pancreatitis was reported in 6 (0.2%) patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and 2 ( < 0.1%) patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), acute pancreatitis was reported in 10 (0.4%) of patients treated with alogliptin and in 7 (0.3%) of patients treated with placebo.
It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatitis while using KAZANO.
After initiation of KAZANO, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, alogliptin should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated.
In the EXAMINE trial which enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome, 106 (3.9%) of patients treated with alogliptin and 89 (3.3%) of patients treated with placebo were hospitalized for congestive heart failure.
Consider the risks and benefits of KAZANO prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and should be instructed to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of KAZANO.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with alogliptin. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue KAZANO, assess for other potential causes for the event and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema with another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with KAZANO.
There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking alogliptin, although some of the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In glycemic control trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were reported in 1.3% of patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and 1.7% of patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), increases in serum alanine aminotransferase three times the upper limit of the reference range occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with alogliptin and in 1.8% of patients treated with placebo.
Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have clinically significant liver enzyme elevations and if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, KAZANO should be interrupted and investigation done to establish the probable cause. KAZANO should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
Vitamin B12 Levels
In controlled, 29-week clinical trials of immediate-release metformin, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on KAZANO, and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at two- to three-year intervals may be useful.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with KAZANO.
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated or malnourished patients and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking β- adrenergic blocking drugs.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with KAZANO or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
- Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of KAZANO.
- The risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in Warnings and Precautions (5.1), should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue KAZANO immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgias, malaise, unusual somnolence or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of KAZANO, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to recur. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
- Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during use of alogliptin. Patients should be informed that persistent, severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue KAZANO and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
- Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Before initiating KAZANO, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment. Patients should be instructed to contact their healthcare providers as soon as possible if they experience symptoms of heart failure, including increasing shortness of breath, rapid increase in weight, or swelling of the feet.
- Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during use of alogliptin and metformin. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue KAZANO and seek medical advice promptly.
- Patients should be informed that postmarketing reports of liver injury, sometimes fatal, have been reported during use of alogliptin. If signs or symptoms of liver injury occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue KAZANO and seek medical advice promptly.
- Patients should be informed about the importance of regular testing of renal function and hematological parameters when receiving treatment with KAZANO.
- Patients should be counseled against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving KAZANO.
- Inform patients that hypoglycemia can occur, particularly when an insulin secretagogue or insulin is used in combination with KAZANO. Explain the risks, symptoms and appropriate management of hypoglycemia.
- Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs.
- Instruct patients to take KAZANO only as prescribed twice daily. KAZANO should be taken with food. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
- Patients should be informed that the tablets must never be split.
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting KAZANO therapy and to reread each time the prescription is refilled. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if an unusual symptom develops or if a symptom persists or worsens.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or impairment of fertility studies have been conducted with KAZANO. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with alogliptin or metformin individually.
Rats were administered oral doses of 75, 400 and 800 mg/kg alogliptin for two years. No drug-related tumors were observed up to 75 mg/kg or approximately 32 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) exposure. At higher doses (approximately 308 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg), a combination of thyroid C-cell adenomas and carcinomas increased in male but not female rats. No drug-related tumors were observed in mice after administration of 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg alogliptin for two years, or up to approximately 51 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure.
Alogliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with and without metabolic activation, in the Ames test with S. typhimurium and E. coli or the cytogenetic assay in mouse lymphoma cells. Alogliptin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus study.
In a fertility study in rats, alogliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating or fertility, at doses up to 500 mg/kg, or approximately 172 times the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg, respectively. These doses are both approximately four times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg.
There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells) or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg, which is approximately three times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with KAZANO or its individual components. Based on animal data, KAZANO is not predicted to increase the risk of developmental abnormalities. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human risk and exposure, KAZANO, like other antidiabetic medications, should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
No treatment-related fetal abnormalities occurred following concomitant administration of 100 mg/kg alogliptin with 150 mg/kg metformin to pregnant rats, or approximately 28 and two times the clinical dose of alogliptin (25 mg) and metformin (2000 mg), respectively (based on AUC).
Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, respectively, the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Doses of alogliptin up to 250 mg/kg (approximately 95 times clinical exposure based on AUC) given to pregnant rats from gestation Day 6 to lactation Day 20 did not harm the developing embryo or adversely affect growth and development of offspring.
Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.
Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg, which represents an exposure of about two and six times the MRHD dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Metformin HCl should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly needed.
No studies have been conducted with the combined components of KAZANO. In studies performed with the individual components, both alogliptin and metformin are secreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether alogliptin and/or metformin are secreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when KAZANO is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of KAZANO in pediatric patients have not been established.
Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function. Monitor renal function in the elderly more frequently [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
¬Of the total number of patients (N = 2095) in clinical safety and efficacy studies, 343 (16.4%) patients were 65 years and older and 37 (1.8%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. While this and other reported clinical experiences have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be excluded.
Of the total number of patients (N=9052) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with alogliptin, 2257 (24.9%) patients were 65 years and older and 386 (4.3%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients.
Controlled studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal and cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. KAZANO is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m² [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. KAZANO is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/2/2017
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