"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved pimavanserin tablets (Nuplazid, Acadia Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD).
Pharmacologic tests have shown that procyclidine hydrochloride has an atropine-like action and exerts an antispasmodic effect on smooth muscle. It is a potent mydriatic and inhibits salivation. It has no sympathetic ganglion- blocking activity in doses as high as 4 mg/kg, as measured by the lack of inhibition of the response of the nictitating membrane to preganglionic electrical stimulation.
The intravenous LD50 in mice was about 60 mg/kg. Subcutaneously, doses of 300 mg/kg were not toxic. In dogs, the intraperitoneal administration of procyclidine hydrochloride in doses of 5 mg/kg caused maximal dilation of the pupil and inhibition of salivation, but had no toxic action. When the dose was increased to 20 mg/kg, the same symptoms occurred, and in addition there were tremors and ataxia lasting 4 to 5 hours. In one animal, convulsions occurred which were controlled by pentobarbital. In all animals behavior returned to normal within 24 hours.
Chronic toxicity tests in rats showed that the compound caused only a very slight retardation in growth, and no change in the erythrocyte count or the histological appearance of the lungs, liver, spleen, and kidney when as much as 10 mg/kg body weight was given subcutaneously daily for 9 weeks.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/1/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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