"A unique type of poster placed in exam rooms helped reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections during flu season. The approach could help reduce costs and extend the usefulness of these drugs.
(ketamine hydrochloride) Injection, USP
EMERGENCE REACTIONS HAVE OCCURRED IN APPROXIMATELY 12 PERCENT OF PATIENTS.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS VARY IN SEVERITY BETWEEN PLEASANT DREAM-LIKE STATES, VIVID IMAGERY, HALLUCINATIONS, AND EMERGENCE DELIRIUM. IN SOME CASES THESE STATES HAVE BEEN ACCOMPANIED BY CONFUSION, EXCITEMENT, AND IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOR WHICH A FEW PATIENTS RECALL AS AN UNPLEASANT EXPERIENCE. THE DURATION ORDINARILY IS NO MORE THAN A FEW HOURS; IN A FEW CASES, HOWEVER, RECURRENCES HAVE TAKEN PLACE UP TO 24 HOURS POSTOPERATIVELY. NO RESIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ARE KNOWN TO HAVE RESULTED FROM USE OF KETALAR.
THE INCIDENCE OF THESE EMERGENCE PHENOMENA IS LEAST IN THE ELDERLY (OVER 65 YEARS OF AGE) PATIENT. ALSO, THEY ARE LESS FREQUENT WHEN THE DRUG IS GIVEN INTRAMUSCULARLY AND THE INCIDENCE IS REDUCED AS EXPERIENCE WITH THE DRUG IS GAINED.
THE INCIDENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS DURING EMERGENCE, PARTICULARLY DREAMLIKE OBSERVATIONS AND EMERGENCE DELIRIUM, MAY BE REDUCED BY USING LOWER RECOMMENDED DOSAGES OF KETALAR IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAVENOUS DIAZEPAM DURING INDUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ANESTHESIA. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Section.) ALSO, THESE REACTIONS MAY BE REDUCED IF VERBAL, TACTILE, AND VISUAL STIMULATION OF THE PATIENT IS MINIMIZED DURING THE RECOVERY PERIOD. THIS DOES NOT PRECLUDE THE MONITORING OF VITAL SIGNS.
IN ORDER TO TERMINATE A SEVERE EMERGENCE REACTION, THE USE OF A SMALL HYPNOTIC DOSE OF A SHORT-ACTING OR ULTRA SHORT-ACTING BARBITURATE MAY BE REQUIRED.
WHEN KETALAR IS USED ON AN OUTPATIENT BASIS, THE PATIENT SHOULD NOT BE RELEASED UNTIL RECOVERY FROM ANESTHESIA IS COMPLETE AND THEN SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED BY A RESPONSIBLE ADULT.
Ketalar is a nonbarbiturate anesthetic chemically designated
dl 2-(0-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is
formulated as a slightly acid (pH 3.5-5.5) sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular
injection in concentrations containing the equivalent of either 10, 50 or 100
mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL Phemerol® (benzethonium
chloride) added as a preservative. The 10 mg/mL solution has been made isotonic
with sodium chloride.
What are the possible side effects of ketamine (Ketalar)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Tell your caregivers at once if you have any of these serious side effects within 24 hours after you receive ketamine: severe confusion, hallucinations, unusual thoughts, or extreme fear.
Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- feeling like you might pass out;
- slow heart rate, weak or shallow breathing;
- pain or burning when you urinate; or
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/16/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Ketalar Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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