Kidney Stones (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Kidney stone facts
- What is a kidney stone?
- Who is at risk for kidney stones?
- What causes kidney stones?
- What are the signs and symptoms of kidney stones?
- How are kidney stones diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for kidney stones? How long does it take to pass a kidney stone?
- Can kidney stones be prevented?
- What is the prognosis for kidney stones?
- Pictures of Kidney Stones - Slideshow
- Pictures of Kidney Stones - Image Collection
- The 7 Wonders of Water - Slideshow
- Find a local Urologist in your town
Can kidney stones be prevented?
Rather than having to undergo treatment, it is best to avoid kidney stones in the first place when possible. It can be especially helpful to drink more water, since low fluid intake and dehydration are major risk factors for kidney stone formation.
Depending on the cause of the kidney stones and an individual's medical history, dietary changes or medications are sometimes recommended to decrease the likelihood of developing further kidney stones. If one has passed a stone, it can be particularly helpful to have it analyzed in a laboratory to determine the precise type of stone so specific prevention measures can be considered.
People who have a tendency to form calcium oxalate kidney stones may be advised to limit their consumption of foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard, beets, wheat germ, and peanuts. Also drinking lemon juice or lemonade may be helpful in preventing kidney stones.
What is the prognosis for kidney stones?
Most kidney stones will pass on their own, and successful treatments have been developed to remove larger stones or stones that do not pass. People who have had a kidney stone remain at risk for future stones throughout their lives.
Medically reviewed by Michael Wolff, MD; American Board of Urology
"Kidney Stones in Adults." National Kidney & Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Sept. 2, 2010. <http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/>
Wolf Jr., J. Stuart. "Nephrolithiasis." Medscape.com. June 16, 2011. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437096-overview>
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