"Analysis of three biomarkers in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can diagnose — and even predict — transplant rejection, according to results from a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infect"...
Kionex® Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate may cause some degree of gastric irritation. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and constipation may occur especially if high doses are given. Also, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and significant sodium retention, and their related clinical manifestations, may occur (see WARNINGS). Occasionally diarrhea develops. Large doses in elderly individuals may cause fecal impaction (see PRECAUTIONS). Rare instances of colonic necrosis have been reported. Intestinal obstruction due to concretions of aluminum hydroxide, when used in combination with sodium polystyrene sulfonate, has been reported.
The following events have been reported from worldwide post marketing experience:
- Fecal impaction following rectal administration, particularly in children;
- Gastrointestinal concretions (bezoars) following oral administration;
- Gastrointestinal tract ulceration of necrosis which could lead to intestinal perforation; and,
- Rare cases of acute bronchitis and/or bronchopneumonia associated with inhalation of particles of polystyrene sulfonate.
Read the Kionex (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Antacids: The simultaneous oral administration of Kionex® (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) with nonabsorbable cation-donating antacids and laxatives may reduce the resin's potassium exchange capability.
Non-absorbable cation-donating antacids and laxatives: Systemic alkalosis has been reported after cation- exchange resins were administered orally in combination with nonabsorbable cation-donating antacids and laxatives such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum carbonate. Magnesium hydroxide should not be administered with Kionex® (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) . One case of grand mal seizure has been reported in a patient with chronic hypocalcemia of renal failure who was given sodium polystyrene sulfonate with magnesium hydroxide as a laxative.
Intestinal obstruction due to concretions of aluminum hydroxide when used in combination with sodium polystyrene sulfonate has been reported.
Digitalis: The toxic effects of digitalis on the heart, especially various ventricular arrhythmias and A-V nodal dissociation, are likely to be exaggerated by hypokalemia, even in the face of serum digoxin concentrations in the "normal range". (See WARNINGS.)
Sorbitol: Concomitant use of Sorbitol with Kionex® (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) has been implicated in cases of chronic necrosis. Therefore, concomitant administration is not recommended.
Lithium: Kionex® (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) may decrease absorption of lithium.
Thyroxine: Kionex® (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) may decrease absorption of thyroxine.
Read the Kionex Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/8/2007
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