"Miriam E. Tucker
Medscape Medical News
The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the empagliflozin/linagliptin combination Glyxambi (Boehringer Ingelheim/Eli Lilly) as adjunctive treatment to diet and "...
(saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride) Extended-release Tablets
Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation. The risk increases with conditions such as sepsis, dehydration, excess alcohol intake, hepatic impairment, renal impairment, and acute congestive heart failure.
The onset of lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress.
Laboratory abnormalities include low pH, increased anion gap, and elevated blood lactate.
If acidosis is suspected, KOMBIGLYZE XR should be discontinued and the patient hospitalized immediately. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets contain two oral antihyperglycemic medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes: saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride.
Saxagliptin is an orally active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme.
Saxagliptin monohydrate is described chemically as (1S,3S,5S)-2-[(2S)-2-Amino-2-(3hydroxytricyclo[184.108.40.206,7]dec-1-yl)acetyl]-2-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-3-carbonitrile, monohydrate or (1S,3S,5S)-2-[(2S)-2-Amino-2-(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)acetyl]-2azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-3-carbonitrile hydrate. The empirical formula is C18H25N3O2•H2O and the molecular weight is 333.43. The structural formula is:
Saxagliptin monohydrate is a white to light yellow or light brown, non-hygroscopic, crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in water at 24°C ± 3°C, slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, and soluble in methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetonitrile, acetone, and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400).
Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5 • HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is:
KOMBIGLYZE XR is available for oral administration as tablets containing either 5.58 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 5 mg saxagliptin and 500 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 5 mg/500 mg), or 5.58 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 5 mg saxagliptin and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 5 mg/1000 mg), or 2.79 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 2.5 mg saxagliptin and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 2.5 mg/1000 mg). Each film-coated tablet of KOMBIGLYZE XR contains the following inactive ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose sodium, hypromellose 2208, and magnesium stearate. The 5 mg/500 mg strength tablet of KOMBIGLYZE XR also contains microcrystalline cellulose and hypromellose 2910. In addition, the film coatings contain the following inactive ingredients: polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol 3350, titanium dioxide, talc, and iron oxides.
The biologically inert components of the tablet may occasionally remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass.
What are the possible side effects of metformin and saxagliptin (Kombiglyze XR)?
This medication may cause lactic acidosis (a build-up of lactic acid in the body, which can be fatal). Lactic acidosis can start slowly and get worse over time. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms of lactic acidosis, such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or irregular heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired.
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing;...
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/17/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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