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5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer's Injection provides electrolytes and calories, and is a source of water for hydration. It is capable of inducing diuresis depending on the clinical condition of the patient. This solution also contains lactate which produces a metabolic alkalinizing effect.
Sodium, the major cation of the extracellular fluid, functions primarily in the control of water distribution, fluid balance and osmotic pressure of body fluids. Sodium is also associated with chloride and bicarbonate in the regulation of the acid-base equilibrium of body fluid. Potassium, the principal cation of intracellular fluid, participates in carbohydrate utilization and protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart.
Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base balance of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration. Calcium, an important cation, provides the framework of bones and teeth in the form of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. In the ionized form, calcium is essential for the functional mechanism of the clotting of blood, normal cardiac function, and regulation of neuromuscular irritability.
Sodium lactate is a racemic salt containing both the levo form, which is oxidized by the liver to bicarbonate, and the dextro form, which is converted to glycogen. Lactate is slowly metabolized to carbon dioxide and water, accepting one hydrogen ion and resulting in the formation of bicarbonate for the lactate consumed. These reactions depend on oxidative cellular activity.
Dextrose provides a source of calories. Dextrose is readily metabolized, may decrease losses of body protein and nitrogen, promotes glycogen deposition and decreases or prevents ketosis if sufficient doses are provided.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/3/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Lactated Ringer's Information
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