"Scientists at the National Institutes of Health report they have discovered in mouse studies that a small molecule released in the spinal cord triggers a process that is later experienced in the brain as the sensation of itch.
In the majority of liver cases reported in association with Lamisil use, the patients had serious underlying systemic conditions. The severity of hepatic events and/or their outcome may be worse in patients with active or chronic liver disease. Treatment with Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued if biochemical or clinical evidence of liver injury develops.
Lamisil Tablets are not recommended for patients with chronic or active liver disease. Before prescribing Lamisil Tablets, pre-existing liver disease should be assessed. Hepatotoxicity may occur in patients with and without pre-existing liver disease. Patients prescribed Lamisil Tablets should be warned to report immediately to their physician any symptoms of persistent nausea, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, right upper abdominal pain or jaundice, dark urine or pale stools. Patients with these symptoms should discontinue taking oral terbinafine, and the patient's liver function should be immediately evaluated.
Taste Disturbance Including Loss of Taste
Taste disturbance, including taste loss, has been reported with the use of Lamisil Tablets. It can be severe enough to result in decreased food intake, weight loss, and depressive symptoms. Taste disturbance may resolve within several weeks after discontinuation of treatment, but may be prolonged (greater than 1 year), or may be permanent. If symptoms of a taste disturbance occur, Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued.
Smell Disturbance Including Loss of Smell
Smell disturbance, including loss of smell, has been reported with the use of Lamisil Tablets. Smell disturbance may resolve after discontinuation of treatment, but may be prolonged (greater than 1 year), or may be permanent. If symptoms of a smell disturbance occur, Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued.
Depressive symptoms have occurred during postmarketing use of terbinafine. Prescribers should be alert to depressive symptoms, and patients should be instructed to report depressive symptoms to their physician.
Transient decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) have been observed in controlled clinical trials. In placebo-controlled trials, 8/465 Lamisil-treated patients (1.7%) and 3/137 placebo-treated patients (2.2%) had decreases in ALC to below 1000/mm³ on 2 or more occasions. In patients with known or suspected immunodeficiency, physicians should consider monitoring complete blood counts if treatment continues for more than 6 weeks. Cases of severe neutropenia have been reported. These were reversible upon discontinuation of Lamisil, with or without supportive therapy. If clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of secondary infection occur, a complete blood count should be obtained. If the neutrophil count is < 1000 cells/mm³ , Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued and supportive management started.
Serious Skin/Hypersensitivity Reactions
There have been postmarketing reports of serious skin/hypersensitivity reactions [e.g., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome]. Manifestations of DRESS syndrome may include cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more organ complications such as hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. If progressive skin rash or signs/symptoms of the above drug reactions occur, treatment with Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued.
During post-marketing experience, precipitation and exacerbation of cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in patients taking Lamisil Tablets. Lamisil Tablets should be discontinued in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of lupus erythematosus.
Measurement of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) is advised for all patients before taking Lamisil Tablets.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Patients taking Lamisil Tablets should receive the following information and instructions:
- Advise patients to immediately report to their physician or get emergency help if they experience any of the following symptoms: hives, mouth sores, blistering and peeling of skin, swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat, difficulty swallowing or breathing. Lamisil Tablets treatment should be discontinued.
- Advise patients to immediately report to their physician any symptoms of persistent nausea, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, right upper abdominal pain, jaundice, dark urine, or pale stools. Lamisil Tablets treatment should be discontinued.
- Advise patients to report to their physician any signs of taste disturbance, smell disturbance and/or depressive symptoms, fever, skin eruption, lymph node enlargement, erythema, scaling, loss of pigment, and unusual photosensitivity that can result in a rash. Lamisil Tablets treatment should be discontinued.
- Advise patients to minimize exposure to natural and artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while using Lamisil Tablets.
- Advise patients that if they forget to take Lamisil Tablets, to take their tablets as soon as they remember, unless it is less than 4 hours before the next dose is due. Advise patients to call their physician if they take too many Lamisil Tablets.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 28-month oral carcinogenicity study in rats, an increase in the incidence of liver tumors was observed in males at the highest dose tested, 69 mg/kg/day (2x the MRHD based on AUC comparisons of the parent terbinafine); however, even though dose-limiting toxicity was not achieved at the highest tested dose, higher doses were not tested.
The results of a variety of in vitro (mutations in E. coli and S. typhimurium, DNA repair in rat hepatocytes, mutagenicity in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, chromosome aberration, and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster lung cells), and in vivo (chromosome aberration in Chinese hamsters, micronucleus test in mice) genotoxicity tests gave no evidence of a mutagenic or clastogenic potential.
Oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 12x the MRHD based on BSA comparisons) did not reveal any specific effects on fertility or other reproductive parameters. Intravaginal application of terbinafine hydrochloride at 150 mg/day in pregnant rabbits did not increase the incidence of abortions or premature deliveries nor affect fetal parameters.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, and because treatment of onychomycosis can be postponed until after pregnancy is completed, it is recommended that Lamisil Tablets not be initiated during pregnancy.
Oral reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits and rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day [12x to 23x the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), in rabbits and rats, respectively, based on body surface area (BSA) comparisons and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to terbinafine.
After oral administration, terbinafine is present in breast milk of nursing mothers. The ratio of terbinafine in milk to plasma is 7:1. Treatment with Lamisil Tablets is not recommended in women who are nursing.
The safety and efficacy of Lamisil Tablets have not been established in pediatric patients with onychomycosis.
Clinical studies of Lamisil Tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/3/2013
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