"What are diuretics and how do they work?
The amount of fluid (water) retained by the body is controlled primarily by the kidneys. This occurs due to the kidney's ability to control the retention and elimination of sodium and chlorid"...
Adverse reactions are categorized below by organ system and listed by decreasing severity.
Gastrointestinal System Reactions
- hepatic encephalopathy in patients with hepatocellular insufficiency
- jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice)
- increased liver enzymes
- oral and gastric irritation
Systemic Hypersensitivity Reactions
- Severe anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions (e.g. with shock)
- systemic vasculitis
- interstitial nephritis
- necrotizing angiitis
Central Nervous System Reactions
- toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
- erythema multiforme
- drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
- acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
- exfoliative dermatitis
- bullous pemphigoid
- Orthostatic hypotension may occur and be aggravated by alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics.
- Increase in cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels
- muscle spasm
- urinary bladder spasm
Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, LASIX dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.
Read the Lasix (furosemide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
LASIX may increase the ototoxic potential of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially in the presence of impaired renal function. Except in life-threatening situations, avoid this combination.
LASIX should not be used concomitantly with ethacrynic acid because of the possibility of ototoxicity. Patients receiving high doses of salicylates concomitantly with LASIX, as in rheumatic disease, may experience salicylate toxicity at lower doses because of competitive renal excretory sites.
There is a risk of ototoxic effects if cisplatin and LASIX are given concomitantly. In addition, nephrotoxicity of nephrotoxic drugs such as cisplatin may be enhanced if LASIX is not given in lower doses and with positive fluid balance when used to achieve forced diuresis during cisplatin treatment.
LASIX has a tendency to antagonize the skeletal muscle relaxing effect of tubocurarine and may potentiate the action of succinylcholine.
Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics because they reduce lithium's renal clearance and add a high risk of lithium toxicity.
LASIX combined with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may lead to severe hypotension and deterioration in renal function, including renal failure. An interruption or reduction in the dosage of LASIX, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers may be necessary.
Potentiation occurs with ganglionic or peripheral adrenergic blocking drugs.
LASIX may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine. However, norepinephrine may still be used effectively.
Simultaneous administration of sucralfate and LASIX tablets may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of LASIX. Patients receiving both drugs should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of LASIX is achieved. The intake of LASIX and sucralfate should be separated by at least two hours.
In isolated cases, intravenous administration of LASIX within 24 hours of taking chloral hydrate may lead to flushing, sweating attacks, restlessness, nausea, increase in blood pressure, and tachycardia. Use of LASIX concomitantly with chloral hydrate is therefore not recommended.
Phenytoin interferes directly with renal action of LASIX. There is evidence that treatment with phenytoin leads to decrease intestinal absorption of LASIX, and consequently to lower peak serum furosemide concentrations.
Methotrexate and other drugs that, like LASIX, undergo significant renal tubular secretion may reduce the effect of LASIX. Conversely, LASIX may decrease renal elimination of other drugs that undergo tubular secretion. High-dose treatment of both LASIX and these other drugs may result in elevated serum levels of these drugs and may potentiate their toxicity as well as the toxicity of LASIX.
LASIX can increase the risk of cephalosporin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the setting of minor or transient renal impairment.
Concomitant use of cyclosporine and LASIX is associated with increased risk of gouty arthritis secondary to LASIX-induced hyperurecemia and cyclosporine impairment of renal urate excretion.
One study in six subjects demonstrated that the combination of furosemide and acetylsalicylic acid temporarily reduced creatinine clearance in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. There are case reports of patients who developed increased BUN, serum creatinine and serum potassium levels, and weight gain when furosemide was used in conjunction with NSAIDs.
Literature reports indicate that coadministration of indomethacin may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of LASIX (furosemide) in some patients by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Indomethacin may also affect plasma renin levels, aldosterone excretion, and renin profile evaluation. Patients receiving both indomethacin and LASIX should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of LASIX is achieved.
Read the Lasix Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/11/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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