Laxatives for Constipation
John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
- What is constipation?
- What causes constipation?
- When should a doctor be consulted for constipation?
- What natural remedies can a person take for constipation?
- What over-the-counter preparations can be used for constipation?
- Bulk-forming laxatives
- Stool softeners (emollient laxatives)
- Lubricant laxatives
- Stimulant laxatives
- Saline laxatives and osmotic laxatives
- Enemas and suppositories
- How is constipation treated in infants and in children?
- How is constipation treated during pregnancy?
- Laxatives for Constipation At A Glance
- Patient Comments: Constipation - Possible Causes
- Find a local Gastroenterologist in your town
What is constipation?
Constipation is a condition that is characterized by infrequent bowel movements that are painful or difficult, or stools that are hard in consistency. Infrequent bowel movements alone are not a reliable indicator of constipation because bowel frequency can vary between three times a day to once a week among normal individuals. Hard stools that are difficult to pass or infrequent stools accompanied by abdominal pain, back pain, and abdominal bloating define constipation.
What are the causes of constipation?
There are many causes of constipation including:
- Diets low in fiber. Fiber is vegetable material resistant to digestion that promotes soft stools by adding bulk to the stool and causing water to be retained in stool.
- Side effects of medications such as narcotic painkillers, antidepressants, iron supplements, calcium channel blockers (medications for high blood pressure), and certain types of antacids.
- Narrowing or blockage of the large intestine (colon) due to scarring from previous surgery, colon cancer or advanced diverticulosis.
- Ineffective contraction or spasm of the colon's muscles due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or other diseases of the colon's muscles.
- Hormonal (endocrine) disturbances such as an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroid) and diabetes mellitus with nerve damage.
- Neurologic conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and others.
Examples of common medications that can cause constipation:
- Narcotic pain medications: codeine (Tylenol #3), oxycodone (Percocet), guaifenesin/hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and others
- Antidepressants: amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), fluoxetine (Prozac), and imipramine (Tofranil)
- Anticonvulsants: phenytoin (Dilantin) and carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- Iron supplements
- Calcium channel blockers (for example, diltiazem [Cardizem] and nifedipine [Procardia])
- Antacids (for example, aluminum hydroxide [Amphojel] and aluminum carbonate [Basaljel])
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