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Levaquin

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Levaquin

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

Serious And Otherwise Important Adverse Reactions

The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:

Hypotension has been associated with rapid or bolus intravenous infusion of LEVAQUIN® . LEVAQUIN® should be infused slowly over 60 to 90 minutes, depending on dosage [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with quinolones, including LEVAQUIN® . Therefore, adequate hydration of patients receiving LEVAQUIN® should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data described below reflect exposure to LEVAQUIN® in 7537 patients in 29 pooled Phase 3 clinical trials. The population studied had a mean age of 50 years (approximately 74% of the population was < 65 years of age), 50% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 19% were Black. Patients were treated with LEVAQUIN® for a wide variety of infectious diseases [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE]. Patients received LEVAQUIN® doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, or 500 mg once or twice daily. Treatment duration was usually 3–14 days, and the mean number of days on therapy was 10 days.

The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse reactions was similar in patients receiving LEVAQUIN® doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, and 500 mg once or twice daily. Discontinuation of LEVAQUIN® due to adverse drug reactions occurred in 4.3% of patients overall, 3.8% of patients treated with the 250 mg and 500 mg doses and 5.4% of patients treated with the 750 mg dose. The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 250 and 500 mg doses were gastrointestinal (1.4%), primarily nausea (0.6%); vomiting (0.4%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.2%). The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 750 mg dose were gastrointestinal (1.2%), primarily nausea (0.6%), vomiting (0.5%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.3%).

Adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 1% of LEVAQUIN®-treated patients and less common adverse reactions, occurring in 0.1 to < 1% of LEVAQUIN®-treated patients, are shown in Table 6 and Table 7, respectively. The most common adverse drug reactions ( ≥ 3%) are nausea, headache, diarrhea, insomnia, constipation, and dizziness.

Table 6: Common ( ≥ 1%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials with LEVAQUIN®

System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction %
(N=7537)
Infections and Infestations moniliasis 1
Psychiatric Disorders insomnia* [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] 4
Nervous System Disorders headache 6
dizziness [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] 3
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders dyspnea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] 1
Gastrointestinal Disorders nausea 7
diarrhea 5
constipation 3
abdominal pain 2
vomiting 2
dyspepsia 2
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders rash [seeWARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] pruritus 2
1
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders vaginitis 1†
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions edema 1
injection site reaction 1
chest pain 1
* N=7274
† N=3758 (women)

Table 7: Less Common (0.1 to 1%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials with LEVAQUIN® (N=7537)

System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
Infections and Infestations genital moniliasis
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders anemia thrombocytopenia granulocytopenia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Immune System Disorders allergic reaction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders hyperglycemia hypoglycemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] hyperkalemia
Psychiatric Disorders anxiety agitation confusion depression hallucination nightmare* [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]sleep disorder* anorexia abnormal dreaming*
Nervous System Disorders tremor convulsions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] paresthesia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS)] vertigo hypertonia hyperkinesias abnormal gait somnolence* syncope
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders epistaxis
Cardiac Disorders cardiac arrest palpitation ventricular tachycardia ventricular arrhythmia
Vascular Disorders phlebitis
Gastrointestinal Disorders gastritis stomatitis pancreatitis esophagitis gastroenteritis glossitis pseudomembranous/ C. difficile colitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Hepatobiliary Disorders abnormal hepatic function increased hepatic enzymes increased alkaline phosphatase
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders urticaria [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders arthralgia tendinitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS)] myalgia skeletal pain
Renal and Urinary Disorders abnormal renal function acute renal failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
* N = 7274

In clinical trials using multiple-dose therapy, ophthalmologic abnormalities, including cataracts and multiple punctate lenticular opacities, have been noted in patients undergoing treatment with quinolones, including LEVAQUIN®. The relationship of the drugs to these events is not presently established.

Postmarketing Experience

Table 8 lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of LEVAQUIN®. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, reliably estimating their frequency or establishing a causal relationship to drug exposure is not always possible.

Table 8: Postmarketing Reports Of Adverse Drug Reactions

System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders pancytopenia aplastic anemia leukopenia hemolytic anemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] eosinophilia
Immune System Disorders hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes fatal including: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions anaphylactic shock angioneurotic edema serum sickness [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Psychiatric Disorders psychosis paranoia isolated reports of suicide attempt and suicidal ideation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Nervous System Disorders exacerbation of myasthenia gravis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] anosmia ageusia parosmia dysgeusia peripheral neuropathy (may be irreversible) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] isolated reports of encephalopathy abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) dysphonia pseudotumor cerebri [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Eye Disorders Uveitis vision disturbance, including diplopia visual acuity reduced vision blurred scotoma
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders hypoacusis tinnitus
Cardiac Disorders isolated reports of torsade de pointes electrocardiogram QT prolonged [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] tachycardia
Vascular Disorders vasodilatation
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders isolated reports of allergic pneumonitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Hepatobiliary Disorders hepatic failure (including fatal cases) hepatitis jaundice [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders bullous eruptions to include: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis erythema multiforme [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] leukocytoclastic vasculitis
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders tendon rupture [seeWARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] muscle injury, including rupture rhabdomyolysis
Renal and Urinary Disorders interstitial nephritis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions multi-organ failure pyrexia
Investigations prothrombin time prolonged international normalized ratio prolonged muscle enzymes increased

Read the Levaquin (levofloxacin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins

LEVAQUIN® Tablets and Oral Solution

While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other fluoroquinolones, concurrent administration of LEVAQUIN® Tablets and Oral Solution with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral LEVAQUIN® administration.

LEVAQUIN® Injection

There are no data concerning an interaction of intravenous fluoroquinolones with oral antacids, sucralfate, multivitamins, didanosine, or metal cations. However, no fluoroquinolone should be co-administered with any solution containing multivalent cations, e.g., magnesium, through the same intravenous line [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Warfarin

No significant effect of LEVAQUIN® on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R-and S-warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that LEVAQUIN® enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and LEVAQUIN® use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if LEVAQUIN® is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding [see ADVERSE REACTIONS; PATIENT INFORMATION].

Antidiabetic Agents

Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS; ADVERSE REACTIONS, PATIENT INFORMATION].

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone, including LEVAQUIN® , may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Theophylline

No significant effect of LEVAQUIN® on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when LEVAQUIN® is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Cyclosporine

No significant effect of LEVAQUIN® on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when co-administered with some other fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin Cmax and ke were slightly lower while Tmax and t½ were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for LEVAQUIN® or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.

Digoxin

No significant effect of LEVAQUIN® on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for LEVAQUIN® or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.

Probenecid And Cimetidine

No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the Cmax of levofloxacin was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t½ of levofloxacin were higher while CL/F and CLR were lower during concomitant treatment of LEVAQUIN® with probenecid or cimetidine compared to LEVAQUIN® alone. However, these changes do not warrant dosage adjustment for LEVAQUIN® when probenecid or cimetidine is co-administered.

Interactions With Laboratory Or Diagnostic Testing

Some fluoroquinolones, including LEVAQUIN®, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.

Read the Levaquin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/5/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
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