"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Viberzi (eluxadoline) and Xifaxan (rifaximin), two new treatments, manufactured by two different companies, for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) in adult men and women.
In the presence of high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance, treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful. Like other anticholinergic agents, Levsin® (hyoscyamine) may produce drowsiness, dizziness or blurred vision. In this event, the patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or to perform hazardous work while taking this drug.
Psychosis has been reported in sensitive individuals given anticholinergic drugs including hyoscyamine sulfate. CNS signs and symptoms include confusion, disorientation, short-term memory loss, hallucinations, dysarthria, ataxia, euphoria, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, agitation and mannerisms, and inappropriate affect. These CNS signs and symptoms usually resolve within 12 to 48 hours after discontinuation of the drug.
Use with caution in patients with: autonomic neuropathy, hyperthyroidism, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, and renal disease. Investigate any tachycardia before giving any anticholinergic drug since they may increase the heart rate. Use with caution in patients with hiatal hernia associated with reflux esophagitis.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term studies in animals have been performed to determine the carcinogenic, mutagenic or impairment of fertility potential of Levsin® (hyoscyamine) ; however, 40 years of marketing experience with hyoscyamine sulfate shows no demonstrable evidence of a problem.
Pregnancy–Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Levsin® (hyoscyamine) . It is also not known whether Levsin® (hyoscyamine) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Levsin® (hyoscyamine) should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Levsin® (hyoscyamine) is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Levsin® (hyoscyamine) is administered to a nursing woman.
Reported clinical experience has not identified differences in safety between patients aged 65 and over and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/17/2010
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