"There is no difference in response or remission rates produced by second-generation antidepressants and those achieved by cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), a systematic review and meta-analy"...
Adverse reactions to LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) are those associated with the use of either component alone. Most frequently reported were drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness and bloating. Other side effects occurring less commonly included vivid dreams, impotence, tremor, confusion and nasal congestion. Many symptoms common to the depressive state, such as anorexia, fatigue, weakness, restlessness and lethargy, have been reported as side effects of treatment with both LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) and amitriptyline.
Granulocytopenia, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction of uncertain etiology have also been observed rarely with LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) . When treatment with LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) is prolonged, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable.
Note: Included in the listing which follows are adverse reactions which have not been reported with LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) . However, they are included because they have been reported during therapy with one or both of the components or closely related drugs.
Testicular swelling and gynecomastia in the male, breast enlargement, galactorrhea and minor menstrual irregularities in the female, elevation and lowering of blood sugar levels, and syndrome of inappropriate ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secretion.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol (convulsions, tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting and sweating), have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of chlordiazepoxide. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (eg, dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Withdrawal symptoms (e.g., nausea, headache and malaise) have also been reported in association with abrupt amitriptyline discontinuation. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving chlordiazepoxide or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence.
Read the Limbitrol (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Drug and Treatment Interactions
Because of its amitriptyline component, LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) may block the antihypertensive action of guanethidine or compounds with a similar mechanism of action.
Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6
The biochemical activity of the drug metabolizing isozyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase) is reduced in a subset of the caucasian population (about 7% to 10% of caucasians are so called “poor metabolizers”); reliable estimates of the prevalence of reduced P450 2D6 isozyme activity among Asian, African and other populations are not yet available. Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. Depending on the fraction of drug metabolized by P450 2D6, the increase in plasma concentration may be small or quite large (8-fold increase in plasma AUC of the TCA).
In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. An individual who is stable on a given dose of TCA may become abruptly toxic when given one of these inhibiting drugs as concomitant therapy. The drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 include some that are not metabolized by the enzyme (quinidine; cimetidine) and many that are substrates for P450 2D6 (many other antidepressants, phenothiazines, and the type 1c antiarrhythmics propafenone and flecainide). While all the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine, inhibit P450 2D6, they may vary in the extent of inhibition. The extent to which SSRI TCA interactions may pose clinical problems will depend on the degree of inhibition and the pharmacokinetics of the SSRI involved. Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the coadministration of TCAs with any of the SSRIs and also in switching from one class to the other. Of particular importance, sufficient time must elapse before initiating TCA treatment in a patient being withdrawn from fluoxetine, given the long half-life of the parent and active metabolite (at least 5 weeks may be necessary).
Concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug. Furthermore, whenever one of these other drugs is withdrawn from cotherapy, an increased dose of tricyclic antidepressant may be required. It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be coadministered with another drug known to be an inhibitor of P450 2D6.
The effects of concomitant administration of LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) and other psychotropic drugs have not been evaluated. Sedative effects may be additive.
Cimetidine is reported to reduce hepatic metabolism of certain tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines, thereby delaying elimination and increasing steady-state concentrations of these drugs. Clinically significant effects have been reported with the tricyclic antidepressants when used concomitantly with cimetidine (Tagamet).
The drug should be discontinued several days before elective surgery.
Concurrent administration of ECT and LIMBITROL (chlordiazepoxide amitriptyline ds tablets) should be limited to those patients for whom it is essential.
Read the Limbitrol Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/11/2009
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