"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa (Rytary, IPX066, Impax Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), postencephalitic parkinsonism, an"...
Carbidopa has not been demonstrated to have any overt pharmacodynamic actions in the recommended doses. The only adverse reactions that have been observed have been with concomitant use of carbidopa with other drugs such as levodopa, and with carbidopalevodopa combination products.
When LODOSYN is administered concomitantly with levodopa or carbidopa-levodopa combination products, the most common adverse reactions have included dyskinesias such as choreiform, dystonic, and other involuntary movements, and nausea. Other adverse reactions reported with LODOSYN when administered concomitantly with levodopa alone or carbidopa-levodopa combination products were psychotic episodes including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoid ideation, depression with or without development of suicidal tendencies, and dementia. Convulsions also have occurred; however, a causal relationship with concomitant use of LODOSYN and levodopa has not been established.
The following other adverse reactions have been reported with levodopa and carbidopalevodopa combination products. These same adverse reactions may also occur when LODOSYN is administered with these products.
Body as a Whole: abdominal pain and distress, asthenia, chest pain, fatigue.
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, bruxism, burning sensation of the tongue, constipation, dark saliva, development of duodenal ulcer, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia, dysphagia, flatulence, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastrointestinal pain, heartburn, hiccups, sialorrhea, taste alterations, vomiting.
Metabolic: edema, weight gain, weight loss.
Musculoskeletal: back pain, leg pain, muscle cramps, shoulder pain.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychotic episodes including delusions, hallucinations and paranoid ideation, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS, see WARNINGS), bradykinetic episodes (“on-off” phenomenon), confusion, agitation, dizziness, somnolence, dream abnormalities including nightmares, insomnia, paresthesia, headache, depression with or without development of suicidal tendencies, dementia, pathological gambling, increased libido including hypersexuality, impulse control symptoms. Convulsions also have occurred; however, a causal relationship with LODOSYN and levodopa, has not been established.
Special Senses: oculogyric crises, diplopia, blurred vision, dilated pupils.
Laboratory Tests: abnormalities in alkaline phosphatase, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Coombs test; elevated serum glucose; decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit; decreased white blood cell count and serum potassium; increased serum creatinine and uric acid; white blood cells, bacteria and blood in the urine; protein and glucose in the urine.
Read the Lodosyn (carbidopa) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Caution should be exercised when the following drugs are administered concomitantly with LODOSYN (Carbidopa) given with levodopa or carbidopa-levodopa fixed dose combination products.
Symptomatic postural hypotension has occurred when LODOSYN, given with levodopa or carbidopa-levodopa combination products, was added to the treatment of a patient receiving antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, when therapy with LODOSYN, given with or without levodopa or carbidopa-levodopa combination products, is started, dosage adjustment of the antihypertensive drug may be required.
For patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Type A or B), see CONTRAINDICATIONS. Concomitant therapy with selegiline or rasigiline and LODOSYN and carbidopa-levodopa may be associated with severe orthostatic hypotension not attributable to carbidopa-levodopa alone (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., phenothiazines, butyrophenones, risperidone) and isoniazid may reduce the therapeutic effects of levodopa. In addition, the beneficial effects of levodopa in Parkinson's disease have been reported to be reversed by phenytoin and papaverine. Patients taking these drugs with LODOSYN and levodopa or carbidopa-levodopa combination products should be carefully observed for loss of therapeutic response
LODOSYN and iron salts or multi vitamins containing iron salts should be co administered with caution. Iron salts c a n f or m c he l a t e s w i t h l e vod opa a nd c a r bi dopa a nd c ons e que nt l y reduce the bioavailability of carbidopa and levodopa.
Although metoclopramide may increase the bioavailability of levodopa by increasing gastric emptying, metoclopramide may also adversely affect disease control by its dopamine receptor antagonistic properties.
Read the Lodosyn Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/10/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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