"What are beta blockers and how do they work?
Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are a class of drugs that works by blocking the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine from binding to receptors. "...
Lopressor HCT (metoprolol tartrate and hydochlorothiazide)
The following adverse reactions were reported in controlled clinical studies of the combination of Lopressor and hydrochlorothiazide.
Nervous System: Dizziness or vertigo, drowsiness or somnolence, and headache have each occurred in about 10 in 100 patients. Nightmare has occurred in 1 in 100 patients.
Cardiovascular: Bradycardia has occurred in about 6 in 100 patients. Decreased exercise tolerance and dyspnea have each occurred in about 1 of 100 patients.
Skin: Sweating and purpura have each occurred in 1 in 100 patients.
Urogenital: Impotence has occurred in 1 in 100 patients.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle pain has occurred in 1 in 100 patients.
Most adverse effects have been mild and transient.
Central Nervous System: Tiredness and dizziness have occurred in about 10 of 100 patients. Depression has been reported in about 5 of 100 patients. Mental confusion and short-term memory loss have been reported. Headache, nightmares, and insomnia have also been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.
Cardiovascular: Shortness of breath and bradycardia have occurred in approximately 3 of 100 patients. Cold extremities; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type; palpitations; and congestive heart failure have been reported. Gangrene in patients with pre-existing severe peripheral circulatory disorders has also been reported very rarely (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS).
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea has occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Nausea, gastric pain, constipation, flatulence, and heartburn have been reported in 1 of 100, or fewer, patients. Vomiting was a common occurrence. Postmarketing experience reveals very rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice and non-specific hepatic dysfunction. Isolated cases of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase elevations have also been reported.
Miscellaneous: Peyronie's disease has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100,000 patients. Alopecia has been reported. There have been very rare reports of weight gain, arthritis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis (relationship to Lopressor has not been definitely established).
The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta blocker practolol has not been reported with Lopressor.
Potential Adverse Reactions
A variety of adverse reactions not listed above have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to Lopressor.
Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; visual disturbances; hallucinations; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.
Cardiovascular: Intensification of AV block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.
The following adverse reactions have been reported during postapproval use of Lopressor: confusional state, an increase in blood triglycerides and a decrease in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency.
The following adverse reactions have been observed, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of their frequency. Consequently the reactions are categorized by organ systems and are listed in decreasing order of severity and not frequency.
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics).
Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm.
Read the Lopressor HCT (metoprolol tartrate and hydochlorothiazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Lopressor: Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with Lopressor plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction: While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.
Some inhalation anesthetics may enhance the cardiodepressant effect of beta blockers (see WARNINGS; Lopressor; Major Surgery).
Potent inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme may increase the plasma concentration of Lopressor. Strong inhibition of CYP2D6 would mimic the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Caution should therefore be exercised when administering potent CYP2D6 inhibitors with Lopressor. Known clinically significant potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 are antidepressants such as fluoxetine, paroxetine or bupropion, antipsychotics such as thioridazine, antiarrhythmics such as quinidine or propafenone, antiretrovirals such as ritonavir, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, antimalarials such as hydroxychloroquine or quinidine, antifungals such as terbinafine and medications for stomach ulcers such as cimetidine.
If a patient is treated with clonidine and Lopressor concurrently, and clonidine treatment is to be discontinued, Lopressor should be stopped several days before clonidine is withdrawn. Rebound hypertension that can follow withdrawal of clonidine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent beta blocker treatment.
Hydrochlorothiazide: Hypokalemia can sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis (e.g., increased ventricular irritability).
Hypokalemia may develop during concomitant use of steroids or ACTH.
Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be increased, decreased, or unchanged.
Thiazides may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine, but not enough to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use.
Thiazides may increase the responsiveness to tubocurarine.
Lithium renal clearance is reduced by thiazides, increasing the risk of lithium toxicity.
There have been rare reports in the literature of hemolytic anemia occurring with the concomitant use of hydrochlorothiazide and methyldopa.
Cholestyramine and colestipol resins: Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Hydrochlorothiazide: Thiazides may decrease serum levels of protein-bound iodine without signs of thyroid disturbance. Thiazides should be discontinued before tests for parathyroid function are made. (see General, Hydrochlorothiazide, Calcium excretion).
Read the Lopressor HCT Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/9/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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