"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor adalimumab (Humira, AbbVie) for the treatment of moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), making it the first and only FDA-approved therapy"...
Effects On Endocrine System
LOTRISONE cream can cause reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency. This may occur during treatment or after withdrawal of treatment. Cushing's syndrome and hyperglycemia may also occur due to the systemic effect of corticosteroids while on treatment. Factors that predispose a patient to HPA axis suppression include the use of high-potency steroids, large treatment surface areas, prolonged use, use of occlusive dressing, altered skin barrier, liver failure, and young age.
Because of the potential for systemic corticosteroid effects, patients may need to be periodically evaluated for HPA axis suppression. This may be done by using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test.
In a small trial, LOTRISONE cream was applied using large dosages, 7 g daily for 14 days (BID) to the crural area of normal adult subjects. Three of the 8 normal subjects on whom LOTRISONE cream was applied exhibited low morning plasma cortisol levels during treatment. One of these subjects had an abnormal cosyntropin test. The effect on morning plasma cortisol was transient and subjects recovered 1 week after discontinuing dosing. In addition, 2 separate trials in pediatric subjects demonstrated adrenal suppression as determined by cosyntropin testing [see Use in Specific Populations].
If HPA axis suppression is documented, gradually withdraw the drug, reduce the frequency of application, or substitute with a less potent corticosteroid.
Pediatric patients may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity due to their larger skin-surface-to-body mass ratios [see Use in Specific Populations].
The use of LOTRISONE cream in the treatment of diaper dermatitis is not recommended.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Inform the patient of the following:
- Use LOTRISONE cream as directed by the physician. It is for external use only.
- Avoid contact with the eyes, the mouth, or intravaginally.
- Do not use LOTRISONE cream on the face or underarms.
- Do not use more than 45 grams of LOTRISONE cream per week.
- When using LOTRISONE cream in the groin area, patients should use the medication for 2 weeks only, and apply the cream sparingly. Patients should wear loose-fitting clothing. Notify the physician if the condition persists after 2 weeks.
- Do not use LOTRISONE cream for any disorder other than that for which it was prescribed.
- Do not bandage, cover or wrap the treatment area unless directed by the physician. Avoid use of LOTRISONE cream in the diaper area, as diapers or plastic pants may constitute occlusive dressing.
- Report any signs of local adverse reactions to the physician. Advise patients that local reactions and skin atrophy are more likely to occur with occlusive use or prolonged use.
- This medication is to be used for the full prescribed treatment time, even though the symptoms may have improved. Notify the physician if there is no improvement after 1 week of treatment for tinea cruris or tinea corporis, or after 2 weeks for tinea pedis.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
There are no adequate laboratory animal studies with either the combination of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate or with either component individually to evaluate carcinogenesis. Betamethasone was negative in the bacterial mutagenicity assay (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli) and in the mammalian cell mutagenicity assay (CHO/HGPRT). It was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay, and equivocal in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Reproductive studies with betamethasone dipropionate carried out in rabbits at doses of 1.0 mg/kg by the intramuscular route and in mice up to 33 mg/kg by the intramuscular route indicated no impairment of fertility except for dose-related increases in fetal resorption rates in both species. These doses are approximately 5- and 38-fold the maximum human dose based on body surface areas, respectively.
In a combined study of the effects of clotrimazole on fertility, teratogenicity, and postnatal development, male and female rats were dosed orally (diet admixture) with levels of 5, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-8 times the maximum dose in a 60-kg adult based on body surface area) from 10 weeks prior to mating until 4 weeks postpartum. No adverse effects on the duration of estrous cycle, fertility, or duration of pregnancy were noted.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with LOTRISONE cream in pregnant women. Therefore, LOTRISONE cream should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
There have been no teratogenic studies performed in animals or humans with the combination of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate. Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered at relatively low dosage levels.
Studies in pregnant rats with intravaginal doses up to 100 mg/kg (15 times the maximum human dose) revealed no evidence of fetotoxicity due to clotrimazole exposure.
No increase in fetal malformations was noted in pregnant rats receiving oral (gastric tube) clotrimazole doses up to 100 mg/kg/day during gestation Days 6 to 15. However, clotrimazole dosed at 100 mg/kg/day was embryotoxic (increased resorptions), fetotoxic (reduced fetal weights), and maternally toxic (reduced body weight gain) to rats. Clotrimazole dosed at 200 mg/kg/day (30 times the maximum human dose) was maternally lethal, and therefore, fetuses were not evaluated in this group. Also in this study, doses up to 50 mg/kg/day (8 times the maximum human dose) had no adverse effects on dams or fetuses. However, in the combined fertility, teratogenicity, and postnatal development study described above, 50 mg/kg clotrimazole was associated with reduced maternal weight gain and reduced numbers of offspring reared to 4 weeks.
Oral clotrimazole doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day (2-15 times the maximum human dose) were not teratogenic in mice. No evidence of maternal toxicity or embryotoxicity was seen in pregnant rabbits dosed orally with 60, 120, or 180 mg/kg/day (18-55 times the maximum human dose).
Betamethasone dipropionate has been shown to be teratogenic in rabbits when given by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.05 mg/kg. This dose is approximately one-fifth the maximum human dose. The abnormalities observed included umbilical hernias, cephalocele, and cleft palates.
Betamethasone dipropionate has not been tested for teratogenic potential by the dermal route of administration. Some corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application to laboratory animals.
Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and can suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids can result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when LOTRISONE cream is administered to a nursing woman.
The use of LOTRISONE cream in patients under 17 years of age is not recommended.
Adverse events consistent with corticosteroid use have been observed in pediatric patients treated with LOTRISONE cream. In open-label trials, 17 of 43 (39.5%) evaluable pediatric subjects (aged 12-16 years old) using LOTRISONE cream for treatment of tinea pedis demonstrated adrenal suppression as determined by cosyntropin testing. In another open-label trial, 8 of 17 (47.1%) evaluable pediatric subjects (aged 12-16 years old) using LOTRISONE cream for treatment of tinea cruris demonstrated adrenal suppression as determined by cosyntropin testing.
Because of a higher ratio of skin surface area to body mass, pediatric patients are at a greater risk than adults of HPA axis suppression when they are treated with topical corticosteroids. They are, therefore also at greater risk of adrenal insufficiency during and/or after withdrawal of treatment. Pediatric patients may be more susceptible than adults to skin atrophy, including striae, when they are treated with topical corticosteroids.
HPA axis suppression, Cushing's syndrome, linear growth retardation, delayed weight gain, and intracranial hypertension have been reported in pediatric patients receiving topical corticosteroids [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Avoid use of LOTRISONE cream in the treatment of diaper dermatitis.
Clinical studies of LOTRISONE cream did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The use of LOTRISONE cream under occlusion, such as in diaper dermatitis, is not recommended.
Postmarket adverse event reporting for LOTRISONE cream in patients aged 65 and above includes reports of skin atrophy and rare reports of skin ulceration. Caution should be exercised with the use of these corticosteroid-containing topical products on thinning skin.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/23/2016
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