"What are birth control pills and how do they work?
Birth control pills are also known as oral contraceptives (OCs) or, simply, “the pill.” They offer protection against pregnancy by blocking the union of sperm and egg, thereby prevent"...
Serious ill effects have not been reported following acute ingestion of large doses of oral contraceptives by young children. Overdosage may cause nausea, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Non-Contraceptive Health Benefits
The following non-contraceptive health benefits related to the use of oral contraceptives are supported by epidemiological studies which largely utilized oral contraceptive formulations containing estrogen doses exceeding 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol or 0.05 mg of mestranol.6–11
Effects on menses:
- Increased menstrual cycle regularity
- Decreased blood loss and decreased incidence of iron deficiency anemia
- Decreased incidence of dysmenorrheal
Effects related to inhibition of ovulation:
- Decreased incidence of functional ovarian cysts
- Decreased incidence of ectopic pregnancies
Effects from long-term use:
Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who have the following conditions:
- Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders
- A past history of deep vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders
- Cerebral vascular or coronary artery disease
- Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast
- Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia
- Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding
- Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use
- Hepatic adenomas, carcinomas or benign liver tumors
- Known or suspected pregnancy
6. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control: JAMA 249(2): 1596-1599, 1983.
7. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control: JAMA 257(6): 796-800, 1987.
8. Ory, H.W.: JAMA 228(1): 68-69, 1974.
9. Ory, H.W., et al.: N Engl JMed 294: 419-422, 1976.
10. Ory, H.W.: Fam Plann Perspect 14: 182-184, 1982.
11. Ory, H.W., et al.: Making Choices, New York, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1983.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/23/2008
Additional Low-Ogestrel Information
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