"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Xofigo (radium Ra 223 dichloride) to treat men with symptomatic late-stage (metastatic) castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread to bones but not to other organs. It is intended for"...
- Patient Information:
Details with Side Effects
Initially, LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) , like other LH-RH agonists, causes increases in serum levels of testosterone. Transient worsening of symptoms, or the occurrence of additional signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, may occasionally develop during the first few weeks of LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) treatment. A small number of patients may experience a temporary increase in bone pain, which can be managed symptomatically. As with other LH-RH agonists, isolated cases of ureteral obstruction and spinal cord compression have been observed, which may contribute to paralysis with or without fatal complications.
Safe use of leuprolide acetate in pregnancy has not been established clinically. Before starting treatment with LUPRON, pregnancy must be excluded (see CONTRAINDICATIONS section).
Periodic monitoring of serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is recommended, especially if the anticipated clinical or biochemical response to treatment has not been achieved. It should be noted that results of testosterone determinations are dependent on assay methodology. It is advisable to be aware of the type and precision of the assay methodology to make appropriate clinical and therapeutic decisions.
Patients with known allergies to benzyl alcohol, an ingredient of the drug's vehicle, may present symptoms of hypersensitivity, usually local, in the form of erythema and induration at the injection site.
Hyperglycemia and an increased risk of developing diabetes have been reported in men receiving GnRH agonists. Hyperglycemia may represent development of diabetes mellitus or worsening of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Monitor blood glucose and/or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) periodically in patients receiving a GnRH agonist and manage with current practice for treatment of hyperglycemia or diabetes.
Increased risk of developing myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death and stroke has been reported in association with use of GnRH agonists in men. The risk appears low based on the reported odds ratios, and should be evaluated carefully along with cardiovascular risk factors when determining a treatment for patients with prostate cancer. Patients receiving a GnRH agonist should be monitored for symptoms and signs suggestive of development of cardiovascular disease and be managed according to current clinical practice.
Information for Patients
See PATIENT INFORMATION.
Response to leuprolide acetate should be monitored by measuring serum levels of testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In the majority of patients, testosterone levels increased above baseline during the first week, declining thereafter to baseline levels or below by the end of the second week of treatment. Castrate levels were reached within two to four weeks and once attained were maintained for as long as drug administration continued.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year carcinogenicity studies were conducted in rats and mice. In rats, a dose-related increase of benign pituitary hyperplasia and benign pituitary adenomas was noted at 24 months when the drug was administered subcutaneously at high daily doses (0.6 to 4 mg/kg). There was a significant but not dose-related increase of pancreatic islet-cell adenomas in females and of testicular interstitial cell adenomas in males (highest incidence in the low dose group). In mice no pituitary abnormalities were observed at a dose as high as 60 mg/kg for two years. Patients have been treated with leuprolide acetate for up to three years with doses as high as 10 mg/day and for two years with doses as high as 20 mg/day without demonstrable pituitary abnormalities.
Mutagenicity studies have been performed with leuprolide acetate using bacterial and mammalian systems. These studies provided no evidence of a mutagenic potential.
Clinical and pharmacologic studies in adults ( ≥ 18 years) with leuprolide acetate and similar analogs have shown full reversibility of fertility suppression when the drug is discontinued after continuous administration for periods of up to 24 weeks. However, no clinical studies have been conducted with leuprolide acetate to assess the reversibility of fertility suppression.
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category X
(see CONTRAINDICATIONSand WARNINGS sections)
When administered on day 6 of pregnancy at test dosages of 0.00024, 0.0024, and 0.024 mg/kg (1/600 to 1/6 the human dose) to rabbits, LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) produced a dose-related increase in major fetal abnormalities. Similar studies in rats failed to demonstrate an increase in major fetal malformations throughout gestation. There was increased fetal mortality and decreased fetal weights with the two higher doses of LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) in rabbits and with the highest dose in rats. The effects on fetal mortality are expected consequences of the alterations in hormonal levels brought about by this drug.
It is not known whether leuprolide acetate is excreted in human milk. LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) should not be used by nursing mothers.
See labeling for LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) INJECTION for Pediatric Use for the safety and effectiveness in children with central precocious puberty.
In the clinical trials for LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) INJECTION, the majority (69%) of subjects studied were at least 65 years of age. Therefore, the labeling reflects the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of LUPRON (leuprolide acetate injection) in this population.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/3/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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