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Exposure to immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets includes over 45,000 patients treated in clinical trials and an estimated exposure of 50,000,000 patients treated during worldwide marketing experience (end of 2005). Of the 539 cases of deliberate or accidental overdose involving fluvoxamine reported from this population, there were 55 deaths. Of these, 9 were in patients thought to be taking immediate-release fluvoxamine tablets alone and the remaining 46 were in patients taking fluvoxamine along with other drugs. Among non-fatal overdose cases, 404 patients recovered completely. Five patients experienced adverse sequelae of overdosage, to include persistent mydriasis, unsteady gait, hypoxic encephalopathy, kidney complications (from trauma associated with overdose), bowel infarction requiring a hemicolectomy, and vegetative state. In 13 patients, the outcome was provided as abating at the time of reporting. In the remaining 62 patients, the outcome was unknown. The largest known ingestion of fluvoxamine immediate-release tablets involved 12,000 mg (equivalent to 2 to 3 months' dosage). The patient fully recovered. However, ingestions as low as 1,400 mg have been associated with lethal outcome, indicating considerable prognostic variability.
In the controlled clinical trials with 403 patients treated with LUVOX CR Capsules, there was one nonfatal intentional overdose.
Commonly ( ≥ 5%) observed adverse reactions associated with fluvoxamine maleate overdose include gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), coma, hypokalemia, hypotension, respiratory difficulties, somnolence, and tachycardia. Other notable signs and symptoms seen with immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate overdose (single or multiple drugs) include bradycardia, ECG abnormalities (such as heart arrest, QT interval prolongation, first degree atrioventricular block, bundle branch block, and junctional rhythm), convulsions, dizziness, liver function disturbances, tremor, and increased reflexes.
Management of Overdosage
Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any antidepressant.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Gastric lavage with a large-bore orogastric tube with appropriate airway protection, if needed, may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion, or in symptomatic patients.
Activated charcoal should be administered. Due to the large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidotes for fluvoxamine are known.
A specific caution involves patients taking, or recently having taken, fluvoxamine maleate who might ingest excessive quantities of a tricyclic antidepressant. In such a case, accumulation of the parent tricyclic and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).
In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. The health care provider should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR).
Coadministration of thioridazine, tizanidine, pimozide, alosetron, or ramelteon with LUVOX CR Capsules is contraindicated (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with LUVOX CR Capsules or within 14 days of stopping treatment with LUVOX CR is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of LUVOX CR within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Starting LUVOX CR in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/28/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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