"March 12, 2010 -- SSRI antidepressants raise the risk of cataracts by about 15% -- enough to cause 22,000 extra cataract cases in the U.S. each year, Canadian researchers suggest.
The study does not prove that antidepressants cause cat"...
Clinical Worsening And Suicide Risk
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. The pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults age 65 and older.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.
TABLE 1 : DRUG-PLACEBO DIFFERENCES IN NUMBER OF CASES
OF SUICIDALITY PER 1000 PATIENTS TREATED
|Age Range||Drug-Related Increases|
|< 18||14 ADDITIONAL CASES|
|18-24||5 ADDITIONAL CASES|
|Age Range||Drug-Related Decreases|
|25-64||1 FEWER CASE|
|≥ 65||6 FEWER CASES|
No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about the drug effect on suicide.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms.
If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION–Discontinuation of Treatment with LUVOX CR Capsules, for a description of the risks of discontinuation of LUVOX CR Capsules).
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for LUVOX CR Capsules should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder
A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that LUVOX CR Capsules are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including LUVOX CR Capsules, alone but particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort), and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.
The concomitant use of LUVOX CR Capsules with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. LUVOX CR should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking LUVOX CR. LUVOX CR should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
If concomitant use of LUVOX CR Capsules with other serotonergic drugs, including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort, is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
Treatment with LUVOX CR Capsules and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur, and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Angle Closure Glaucoma
Angle Closure Glaucoma: The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Luvox CR may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.
Potential Thioridazine Interaction
The effect of fluvoxamine (25 mg immediate-release tablets given twice daily for one week) on thioridazine steady-state concentrations was evaluated in 10 male inpatients with schizophrenia. Concentrations of thioridazine and its two active metabolites, mesoridazine and sulforidazine, increased 3-fold following coadministration of fluvoxamine.
Thioridazine administration produces a dose-related prolongation of the QTc interval, which is associated with serious ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias, and sudden death. It is likely that this experience underestimates the degree of risk that might occur with higher doses of thioridazine. Moreover, the effect of fluvoxamine may be even more pronounced when it is administered at higher doses.
Therefore, LUVOX CR Capsules should not be coadministered with thioridazine (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Potential Tizanidine Interaction
Fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, and tizanidine is a CYP1A2 substrate. The effect of immediate– release fluvoxamine maleate tablets (100 mg daily for four days) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of tizanidine has been studied in 10 healthy male subjects. Tizanidine Cmax was increased approximately 12-fold (range 5-fold to 32-fold), elimination half-life was increased by almost 3-fold, and AUC increased 33-fold (range 14-fold to 103-fold). The mean maximal effect on blood pressure was a 35 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure, a 20 mm Hg decrease in diastolic blood pressure, and a 4 beat/min decrease in heart rate. Drowsiness was significantly increased, and performance on the psychomotor task was significantly impaired. LUVOX CR Capsules and tizanidine should not be used together (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Potential Pimozide Interaction
Pimozide is metabolized by the CYP3A4 isozyme and it has been demonstrated that ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocks the metabolism of this drug, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of parent drug. An increased plasma concentration of pimozide causes QT prolongation and has been associated with torsades de pointes-type ventricular tachycardia, sometimes fatal. As noted below, a substantial pharmacokinetic interaction has been observed for fluvoxamine in combination with alprazolam, a drug that is known to be metabolized by the CYP3A4 isozyme. Although it has not been definitively demonstrated that fluvoxamine is a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, it is likely to be, given the substantial interaction of fluvoxamine with alprazolam. Consequently, it is recommended that fluvoxamine not be used in combination with pimozide (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Potential Alosetron Interaction
In a pharmacokinetic study, 40 healthy female subjects received fluvoxamine in escalating doses from 50 to 200 mg/day for 16 days with coadministration of alosetron 1 mg on the last day. Fluvoxamine increased mean alosetron plasma concentrations (AUC) approximately 6-fold and prolonged the half-life by approximately 3-fold. Consequently, it is recommended that LUVOX CR Capsules not be used in combination with alosetron (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Lotronex® (alosetron) package insert).
Potential Ramelteon Interaction
When immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets 100 mg twice daily were administered for 3 days prior to single-dose coadministration of ramelteon 16 mg and immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets, the AUC for ramelteon increased approximately 190-fold and the Cmax increased approximately 70-fold compared to ramelteon administered alone. Ramelteon should not be used in combination with LUVOX CR Capsules (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Other Potentially Important Drug Interactions
Benzodiazepines metabolized by hepatic oxidation (e.g., alprazolam, midazolam, triazolam, etc.) should be used with caution because the clearance of these drugs is likely to be reduced by fluvoxamine. The clearance of benzodiazepines metabolized by glucuronidation (e.g., lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam) is unlikely to be affected by fluvoxamine.
When immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets (100 mg given once daily) and alprazolam (1 mg given 4 times per day) were coadministered to steady state, plasma concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax, T½) of alprazolam were approximately twice those observed when alprazolam was administered alone; oral clearance was reduced by about 50%. The elevated plasma alprazolam concentrations resulted in decreased psychomotor performance and memory. This interaction, which has not been investigated using higher doses of fluvoxamine, may be more pronounced if a 300 mg daily dose is coadministered, particularly since fluvoxamine exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics over the dosage range 100300 mg. If alprazolam is coadministered with LUVOX CR Capsules, the initial alprazolam dosage should be at least halved and titration to the lowest effective dose is recommended. No dosage adjustment is required for LUVOX CR Capsules.
The coadministration of LUVOX CR Capsules and diazepam is generally not advisable. Because fluvoxamine reduces the clearance of both diazepam and its active metabolite, N-desmethyldiazepam, there is a strong likelihood of substantial accumulation of both species during chronic coadministration.
Evidence supporting the conclusion that it is inadvisable to coadminister fluvoxamine and diazepam is derived from a study in which healthy volunteers taking 150 mg/day of immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets were administered a single oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam. In these subjects (N=8), the clearance of diazepam was reduced by 65% and that of N-desmethyldiazepam to a level that was too low to measure over the course of the 2-week-long study.
It is likely that this experience significantly underestimates the degree of accumulation that might occur with repeated diazepam administration. Moreover, as noted with alprazolam, the effect of fluvoxamine may even be more pronounced when it is administered at higher doses.
Accordingly, diazepam and fluvoxamine should not ordinarily be coadministered.
Elevated serum levels of clozapine have been reported in patients taking immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets and clozapine. Since clozapine-related seizures and orthostatic hypotension appear to be dose related, the risk of these adverse reactions may be higher when fluvoxamine and clozapine are coadministered. Patients should be closely monitored when LUVOX CR Capsules and clozapine are used concurrently.
Significantly increased methadone (plasma level:dose) ratios have been reported when immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets were administered to patients receiving maintenance methadone treatment, with symptoms of opioid intoxication in one patient. Opioid withdrawal symptoms were reported following fluvoxamine maleate discontinuation in another patient.
The effect of steady-state fluvoxamine (50 mg given twice daily for 7 days) on the single dose pharmacokinetics of mexiletine (200 mg) was evaluated in 6 healthy Japanese males. The clearance of mexiletine was reduced by 38% following coadministration with fluvoxamine compared to mexiletine alone. If fluvoxamine and mexiletine are coadministered, serum mexiletine levels should be monitored.
The effect of steady-state immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets (50 mg tablets given twice daily) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of theophylline (375 mg as 442 mg aminophylline) was evaluated in 12 healthy non-smoking, male volunteers. The clearance of theophylline was decreased approximately 3-fold. Therefore, if theophylline is coadministered with fluvoxamine maleate, its dose should be reduced to one-third of the usual daily maintenance dose and plasma concentrations of theophylline should be monitored. No dosage adjustment is required for LUVOX CR Capsules.
Warfarin and Other Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (NSAIDs, Aspirin, etc.)
Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These studies have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Thus, patients should be cautioned about the use of such drugs concurrently with fluvoxamine (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS - Abnormal Bleeding).
When immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets (50 mg given three times daily) were administered concomitantly with warfarin for two weeks, warfarin plasma concentrations increased by 98% and prothrombin times were prolonged. Thus patients receiving oral anticoagulants and LUVOX CR Capsules should have their prothrombin time monitored and their anticoagulant dose adjusted accordingly. No dosage adjustment is required for LUVOX CR Capsules.
Discontinuation Of Treatment With LUVOX CR Capsules
During marketing of immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets and other SSRIs and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse reactions occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias, such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, and hypomania. While these reactions are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms.
Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with LUVOX CR Capsules. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the health care provider may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
SSRIs and SNRIs, including LUVOX CR Capsules, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.
Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of LUVOX CR Capsules and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.
Activation Of Mania/Hypomania
During premarketing studies of immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets involving primarily depressed patients, hypomania or mania occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated with fluvoxamine. In a 10-week pediatric OCD study, 2 out of 57 patients (4%) treated with fluvoxamine experienced manic reactions, compared to none of 63 placebo patients. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorder who were treated with other marketed antidepressants. As with all antidepressants, LUVOX CR Capsules should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania.
During premarketing studies with immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets, seizures were reported in 0.2% of fluvoxamine-treated patients. Caution is recommended when the drug is administered to patients with a history of convulsive disorders. Fluvoxamine should be avoided in patients with unstable epilepsy, and patients with controlled epilepsy should be carefully monitored. Treatment with fluvoxamine should be discontinued if seizures occur or if seizure frequency increases.
Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including LUVOX CR Capsules. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs (see Use In Specific Populations, Geriatric Use). Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk. Discontinuation of LUVOX CR Capsules should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.
Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.
Use In Patients With Concomitant Illness
Closely monitored clinical experience with LUVOX CR Capsules in patients with concomitant systemic illness is limited. Caution is advised in administering LUVOX CR Capsules to patients with diseases or conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses or metabolism.
LUVOX CR Capsules or immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets have not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were systematically excluded from many clinical studies during premarketing testing of these products. Evaluation of the electrocardiograms for patients with depression or OCD who participated in premarketing studies revealed no differences between fluvoxamine and placebo in the emergence of clinically important ECG changes.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
In patients with liver dysfunction, following administration of immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets, fluvoxamine clearance was decreased by approximately 30%. Patients with liver dysfunction should begin with a low dose of LUVOX CR Capsules and increase it slowly with careful monitoring.
There are no specific laboratory tests recommended.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Medication Guide.
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with LUVOX CR Capsules and should counsel them in the appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide discussing antidepressant medicines, depression and other serious mental illnesses, and suicidal thoughts or actions and other important information about LUVOX CR Capsules is available for LUVOX CR Capsules. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read both sections of the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.
Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking LUVOX CR Capsules.
Clinical Worsening And Suicide Risk
Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate the need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication (see BOXED WARNINGand WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Patients should be advised that the following medications should not be used while taking LUVOX CR Capsules:
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Thioridazine: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Tizanidine: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Pimozide: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Alosetron: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Ramelteon: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
In addition, MAOIs should not be taken within 14 days (2 weeks) after stopping LUVOX CR Capsules, and LUVOX CR Capsules should not be taken within two weeks after stopping treatment with an MAOI (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Other Potentially Hazardous Drug Interactions
Patients should be advised that the use of LUVOX CR Capsules with any of the following medications may produce clinically significant adverse reactions. Patients should inform their physician if they are taking any of these medications before starting treatment with LUVOX CR Capsules. Patients should also inform their physician prior to taking any of these medications while receiving LUVOX CR Capsule therapy.
- Serotonergic drugs, including triptans, tramadol, and tryptophan: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Antipsychotic agents, including clozapine: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Certain benzodiazepines: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Methadone: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Mexiletine: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS .
- Theophylline: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
- Warfarin and other drugs that interfere with hemostasis: Patients should be cautioned about the concomitant use of fluvoxamine and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation since the combined use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and these agents has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
- Diuretics: See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.
In addition, patients should be advised to notify their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for clinically important interactions with LUVOX CR Capsules.
Patients should be advised that LUVOX CR Capsules may increase the risk of bleeding events, which have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
Angle Closure Glaucoma
Patients should be advised that taking Luvox CR can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS)
Interference With Cognitive Or Motor Performance
Since any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are certain that LUVOX CR Capsules therapy does not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities.
Patients should be advised to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy with LUVOX CR Capsules (see Use In Specific Populations).
Patients receiving LUVOX CR Capsules should be advised to notify their physicians if they are breast-feeding an infant. (see Use In Specific Populations – Nursing Mothers).
As with other psychotropic medications, patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking LUVOX CR Capsules.
Patients should be advised to notify their physicians if they develop a rash, hives, or a related allergic phenomenon during therapy with LUVOX CR Capsules.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in rats treated orally with fluvoxamine maleate for 30 months or hamsters treated orally with fluvoxamine maleate for 20 months (females) or 26 months (males). The daily doses in the high-dose groups in these studies were increased over the course of the study from a minimum of 160 mg/kg to a maximum of 240 mg/kg in rats, and from a minimum of 135 mg/kg to a maximum of 240 mg/kg in hamsters. The maximum dose of 240 mg/kg is approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² basis.
No evidence of genotoxic potential was observed in a mouse micronucleus test, an in vitro chromosome aberration test, or the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation.
Impairment of Fertility
In a study in which male and female rats were administered fluvoxamine (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg) orally prior to and during mating and gestation, fertility was impaired at doses of 120 mg/kg or greater, as evidenced by increased latency to mating, decreased sperm count, decreased epididymal weight, and decreased pregnancy rate. In addition, the numbers of implantations and embryos were decreased at the highest dose. The no effect dose for fertility impairment was 60 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C
When pregnant rats were given daily doses of fluvoxamine (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, developmental toxicity in the form of increased embryofetal death and increased incidences of fetal eye abnormalities (folded retinas) was observed at doses of 120 mg/kg or greater. Decreased fetal body weight was seen at the high dose. The no effect dose for developmental toxicity in this study was 60 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m² basis).
In a study in which pregnant rabbits were administered doses of up to 40 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) orally during organogenesis, no adverse effects on embryofetal development were observed.
In other reproduction studies in which female rats were dosed orally during pregnancy and lactation (5, 20, 80, or 160 mg/kg), increased pup mortality at birth was seen at doses of 80 mg/kg or greater and decreases in pup body weight and survival were observed at all doses (low effect dose approximately 0.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Neonates exposed to fluvoxamine maleate tablets and other SSRIs or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs or SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS - Serotonin Syndrome ).
Infants exposed to SSRIs in pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1-2 per 1000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several recent epidemiologic studies suggest a positive statistical association between SSRI use (LUVOX and LUVOX CR are SSRIs) in pregnancy and PPHN. Other studies do not show a significant statistical association.
Physicians should also note the results of a prospective longitudinal study of 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression, who were either on antidepressants or had received antidepressants less than 12 weeks prior to their last menstrual period, and were in remission. Women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy showed a significant increase in relapse of their major depression compared to those women who remained on antidepressant medication throughout pregnancy.
When treating a pregnant woman with fluvoxamine, the physician should carefully consider both the potential risks of taking an SSRI, along with the established benefits of treating depression with an antidepressant. This decision can only be made on a case by case basis (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Labor And Delivery
The effect of fluvoxamine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
Fluvoxamine is secreted in human breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from LUVOX CR Capsules, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
LUVOX CR Capsules have not been evaluated in pediatric patients (see BOXED WARNING). The efficacy of fluvoxamine maleate administered as immediate-release tablets for the treatment of OCD was demonstrated in a 10 week multicenter placebo-controlled study with 120 outpatients ages 8-17. In addition, 99 of these outpatients continued open-label fluvoxamine maleate treatment for up to another one to three years, equivalent to 94 patient years. The adverse reaction profile observed in that study was generally similar to that observed in adult studies with immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of fluvoxamine as well as other SSRIs. Consequently, regular monitoring of weight and growth should be performed in children and adolescents treated with an SSRI such as LUVOX CR Capsules.
The risks, if any, that may be associated with fluvoxamine's extended use in children and adolescents with OCD have not been systematically assessed. The prescriber should be mindful that the evidence relied upon to conclude that fluvoxamine is safe for use in children and adolescents derives from relatively short-term clinical studies and from extrapolation of experience gained with adult patients. In particular, there are no studies that directly evaluate the effects of long-term fluvoxamine use on the growth, cognitive behavioral development, and maturation of children and adolescents. Although there is no affirmative finding to suggest that fluvoxamine possesses a capacity to adversely affect growth, development, or maturation, the absence of such findings is not compelling evidence of the absence of the potential of fluvoxamine to have adverse effects in chronic use (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS – Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk).
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population other than pediatric patients with OCD have not been established (see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS – Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk). Anyone considering the use of LUVOX CR Capsules in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.
Approximately 230 patients and 5 patients participating in controlled premarketing studies with immediate-release fluvoxamine maleate tablets and LUVOX CR Capsules, respectively, were 65-years of age or over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these patients and younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, SSRIs and SNRIs, including fluvoxamine, have been associated with several cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS). Furthermore, the clearance of fluvoxamine is decreased by about 50% in elderly compared to younger patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY– Elderly), and greater sensitivity of some older individuals also cannot be ruled out. Consequently, a lower starting dose should be considered in elderly patients, and LUVOX CR Capsules should be slowly titrated during initiation of therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/4/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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