Lyme Disease (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Lyme disease facts
- What is Lyme disease? What causes Lyme disease?
- What is the history of Lyme disease?
- What are symptoms and signs of Lyme disease?
- How is Lyme disease diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for Lyme disease, and what is its prognosis?
- How can Lyme disease be prevented? Is there a vaccine?
- Lyme Disease - Slideshow
- Take the Lyme Disease Quiz
- Lyme Disease Medical Pictures - Image Collection
- Lyme Disease FAQs
How can Lyme disease be prevented? Is there a vaccine?
Avoiding known tick-infested areas obviously can prevent transmission of Lyme disease. Because Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks attaching to the body, it is important to use tick-bite avoidance techniques when visiting known tick-infested areas. Spraying insect repellant containing DEET onto exposed skin can help. Wearing long pants tucked into boots and long sleeves can protect the skin. Clothing, children, and pets should be examined for ticks. Ticks can be removed gently with tweezers and saved in a jar for later identification. Bathing the skin and scalp and washing clothing upon returning home might prevent the bite and transmission of the disease.
If a person is bitten by the classic deer tick (Ixodes) that has been attached for at least 36 hours, a single dose of doxycycline (200 mg) can be helpful for prevention of Lyme disease. This therapy is not recommended if the tick is acquired in an area where these ticks are not commonly infested (infection rate less than 20%) with the bacterium (Borrelia) that causes Lyme disease. Also, doxycycline should not be used in pregnancy or in children under 8 years of age.
Vaccines were formerly on the market; however, as of Feb. 25, 2002, the manufacturer announced that the LYMErix Lyme disease vaccine would no longer be commercially available. Further studies of vaccines are needed. For now, ideal prevention focuses on the recommendations of the preceding paragraph.
For more information about Lyme disease, please visit the following site:
American Lyme Disease
American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc.
Mill Pond Offices
293 Route 100, Suite 204
Somers, New York 10589
Alternatively, you may contact the CDC:
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Klippel, John H., et al., eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. 13th ed. New York: Springer and Arthritis Foundation, 2008.
Koopman, William, et al., eds. Clinical Primer of Rheumatology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
Ruddy, Shaun, et al., eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 2000.
Last Editorial Review: 9/16/2011
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