"Investigators from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trials are reaffirming conclusions that hormone therapy is not recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but may remain a reasonable option for the short-term management "...
- Patient Information:
Details with Side Effects
Concomitant Use of Hormonal Contraceptives
Combination hormonal contraceptives are known to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, as well as arterial thromboses such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Because LYSTEDA is antifibrinolytic, the risk of venous thromboembolism, as well as arterial thromboses such as stroke, may increase further when hormonal contraceptives are administered with LYSTEDA. This is of particular concern in women who are obese or smoke cigarettes, especially smokers over 35 years of age.
Women using hormonal contraception were excluded from the clinical trials supporting the safety and efficacy of LYSTEDA, and there are no clinical trial data on the risk of thrombotic events with the concomitant use of LYSTEDA with hormonal contraceptives. However, there have been US postmarketing reports of venous and arterial thrombotic events in women who have used LYSTEDA concomitantly with combination hormonal contraceptives. For this reason, concomitant use of LYSTEDA with combination hormonal contraceptives is contraindicated. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Factor IX Complex Concentrates or Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Concentrates
LYSTEDA is not recommended for women taking either Factor IX complex concentrates or anti-inhibitor coagulant concentrates because the risk of thrombosis may be increased [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
All-Trans Retinoic Acid (Oral Tretinoin)
Exercise caution when prescribing LYSTEDA to women with acute promyelocytic leukemia taking all-trans retinoic acid for remission induction because of possible exacerbation of the procoagulant effect of all-trans retinoic acid [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Retinal venous and arterial occlusion has been reported in patients using tranexamic acid. Patients should be instructed to report visual and ocular symptoms promptly. In the event of such symptoms, patients should be instructed to discontinue LYSTEDA immediately and should be referred to an ophthalmologist for a complete ophthalmic evaluation, including dilated retinal examination, to exclude the possibility of retinal venous or arterial occlusion.
Severe Allergic Reaction
A case of severe allergic reaction to LYSTEDA was reported in the clinical trials, involving a subject who experienced dyspnea, tightening of her throat, and facial flushing that required emergency medical treatment. A case of anaphylactic shock has also been reported in the literature, involving a patient who received an intravenous bolus of tranexamic acid.
Cerebral edema and cerebral infarction may be caused by use of LYSTEDA in women with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Ligneous conjunctivitis has been reported in patients taking tranexamic acid. The conjunctivitis resolved following cessation of the drug.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Instruct patients that the usual schedule is to take two tablets with liquids, three times a day during menstruation. Patients should be instructed not to exceed 3 doses (6 tablets) in a 24-hour period or to take for more than 5 days in any menstrual cycle.
Inform patients that they should immediately stop LYSTEDA if they notice any eye symptoms or change in their vision. Instruct them to report any such problems promptly to their physician and to follow-up with an ophthalmologist for a complete ophthalmic evaluation, including dilated retinal examination of the retina.
Inform patients that they should stop LYSTEDA and seek immediate medical attention if they notice symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (e.g., shortness of breath or throat tightening).
Instruct patients that common side effects of LYSTEDA include headache, sinus and nasal symptoms, back pain, abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain, joint pain, muscle cramps, migraine, anemia and fatigue.
Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider if their heavy menstrual bleeding symptoms persist or worsen.
Remind patients to read the Patient Labeling carefully.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies with tranexamic acid in male mice at doses as high as 6 times the recommended human dose of 3900 mg/day showed an increased incidence of leukemia which may have been related to treatment. Female mice were not included in this experiment.
The dose multiple referenced above is based on body surface area (mg/m²). Actual daily dose in mice was up to 5000 mg/kg/day in food.
Hyperplasia of the biliary tract and cholangioma and adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic biliary system have been reported in one strain of rats after dietary administration of doses exceeding the maximum tolerated dose for 22 months. Hyperplastic, but not neoplastic, lesions were reported at lower doses. Subsequent long-term dietary administration studies in a different strain of rat, each with an exposure level equal to the maximum level employed in the earlier experiment, have failed to show such hyperplastic/neoplastic changes in the liver.
Tranexamic acid was neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in the in vitro Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames test), in vitro chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster cells, and in in vivo chromosome aberration tests in mice and rats.
Impairment of Fertility
Reproductive studies performed in mice, rats and rabbits have not revealed any evidence of impaired fertility or adverse effects on the fetus due to tranexamic acid.
In a rat embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study, tranexamic acid had no adverse effects on embryo-fetal development when administered during the period of organogenesis (from gestation days 6 through 17) at doses 1, 2 and 4 times the recommended human oral dose of 3900 mg/day. In a perinatal-postnatal study in rats, tranexamic acid had no adverse effects on pup viability, growth or development when administered from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 20 at doses 1, 2 and 4 times the recommended human oral dose of 3900 mg/day.
The dose multiples referenced above are based on body surface area (mg/m²). Actual daily doses in rats were 300, 750 or 1500 mg/kg/day.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy (Category B)
LYSTEDA is not indicated for use in pregnant women. Reproduction studies have been performed in mice, rats and rabbits and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to tranexamic acid. However, tranexamic acid is known to cross the placenta and appears in cord blood at concentrations approximately equal to the maternal concentration. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
An embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in rats and a perinatal developmental toxicity study in rats were conducted using tranexamic acid. No adverse effects were observed in either study at doses up to 4 times the recommended human oral dose of 3900 mg/day based on mg/m² (actual animal dose 1500 mg/kg/day).
Tranexamic acid is present in the mother's milk at a concentration of about one hundredth of the corresponding serum concentration. LYSTEDA should be used during lactation only if clearly needed.
LYSTEDA is indicated for women of reproductive age and is not intended for use in premenarcheal girls. Based on a pharmacokinetic study in 20 adolescent females, 12 to 16 years of age, no dose adjustment is needed in the adolescent population [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
LYSTEDA is indicated for women of reproductive age and is not intended for use by postmenopausal women.
The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of LYSTEDA has not been studied. Because tranexamic acid is primarily eliminated via the kidneys by glomerular filtration with more than 95% excreted as unchanged in urine, dosage adjustment in patient with renal impairment is needed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of LYSTEDA has not been studied. Because only a small fraction of the drug is metabolized, dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic impairment is not needed [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/25/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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