Male Breast Cancer (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dennis Lee, MD
Dr. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. He graduated with chemistry departmental honors from Harvey Mudd College. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Male breast cancer facts
- What is male breast cancer?
- How common is male breast cancer?
- What are causes and risk factors of male breast cancer?
- What are the different types of male breast cancer?
- What are male breast cancer symptoms and signs?
- How is male breast cancer diagnosed?
- What is staging of male breast cancer?
- What is the treatment for male breast cancer?
- What is the outcome (prognosis) of male breast cancer?
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What is the treatment for male breast cancer?
Like breast cancer in women, treatment depends upon the stage of the cancer and the overall physical condition of the patient. Treatments are the same as for breast cancer in women.
Most men diagnosed with breast cancer are initially treated by surgery. A modified radical mastectomy (removal of the breast, lining over the chest muscles, and portions of the underarm or axillary lymph nodes) is the most common surgical treatment of male breast cancer. Sometimes portions of the muscles of the chest wall are also removed.
After surgery, adjuvant therapies are often prescribed. These are recommended especially if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes (node-positive cancer). Adjuvant therapies include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone therapy. In cases of metastatic cancer, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of both, are generally recommended.
Chemotherapy refers to the administration of toxic drugs that stop the growth of cancer cells, or even kill some of them. Chemotherapy may be given as pills, as an injection, or via an intravenous infusion, depending upon the types of drugs chosen. Combinations of different drugs are usually given, and treatment is administered in cycles with a recovery period following each treatment. Some of the most common chemotherapeutic agents for treating breast cancer are cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), fluorouracil, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin). Numerous other chemotherapy drugs are now available as well.In most cases, chemotherapy is administered on an outpatient basis. Chemotherapy may be associated with unpleasant side effects including fatigue, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy may be delivered either externally (using a machine to send radiation toward the tumor) or internally (radioactive substances placed in needles or catheters and inserted into the body).
Hormonal therapy prevents hormones from stimulating growth of cancer cells and is useful when the cancer cells have binding sites (receptors) for hormones. Over 90% of male breast cancers express estrogen receptors and are most commonly treated with the drug tamoxifen (Nolvadex), which blocks the action of estrogen on the cancer cells. Side effects of tamoxifen treatment can include hot flashes, weight gain, mood changes, and impotence.
Learn more about: Nolvadex
While estrogen is the most common target of hormonal therapy, studies have also shown that treatments directed against the actions of male hormones (anti-androgens) can also reduce the size of male breast cancer metastases. The reasons why anti-androgens are effective in widespread disease are not fully understood. Orchiectomy (removal of the testes) was formerly performed to lower androgen levels, but newer nonsurgical methods are currently favored. Drugs known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs affect the pituitary gland and result in lowered production of male hormones by the testes.
Targeted therapy involves agents that are designed to specifically target one of the cancer-specific changes in cells. An example of targeted therapy is trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody that blocks the activity the protein known as HER-2-neu that is made by some breast cancers. This treatment is only used in breast cancers whose cells express the HER-2-neu protein and is given intravenously. Trastuzumab has been shown to be effective in women with breast cancer but has not been extensively tested in men with breast cancer. Similarly, lapatinib (Tykerb) is a drug taken in pill form that also targets the HER2/neu protein. It is used in combination with other agents to treat HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responsive to trastuzumab.
If a cancer that has been surgically removed regrows at the original site, this is referred to as local recurrence. Locally recurrent cancers are usually treated by surgery along with chemotherapy or radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy.
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