"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Brintellix (vortioxetine) to treat adults with major depressive disorder.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly referred to as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by mo"...
The lethal dose of Marplan in humans is not known. There has been one report of a fatality in a patient who ingested 400 mg of Marplan together with an unspecified amount of another drug. Symptoms: Major overdosage may be evidenced by tachycardia, hypotension, coma, convulsions, respiratory depression, sluggish reflexes, pyrexia, and diaphoresis; these signs may persist for 8 to 14 days. Treatment: General supportive measures should be used, along with immediate gastric lavage or emetics. If the latter are given, the danger of aspiration must be borne in mind. An adequate airway should be maintained, with supplemental oxygen if necessary. The mechanism by which amine-oxidase inhibitors produce hypotension is not fully understood, but there is evidence that these agents block the vascular bed response. Thus it is suggested that plasma may be of value in the management of this hypotension. Administration of pressor amines such as Levophed8 (levarterenol bitartrate) may be of limited value (note that their effects may be potentiated by Marplan). Continue treatment for several days until homeostasis is restored. Liver function studies are recommended during the 4 to 6 weeks after recovery, as well as the time of overdosage.
In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center on the treatment of any overdose.
Marplan (isocarboxazid) should not be administered in combination with any of the following: MAO inhibitors or dibenzazepine derivatives; sympathomimetics (including amphetamines); some central nervous system depressants (including narcotics and alcohol); antihypertensive, diuretic, antihistaminic, sedative or anesthetic drugs, buproprion HCL, buspirone HCL, dextromethorphan, cheese or other foods with a high tyramine content; or excessive quantities of caffeine.
Marplan (isocarboxazid) should not be administered to any patient with a confirmed or suspected cerebrovascular defect or to any patient with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or history of headache.
Contraindicated Patient Populations
Marplan should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to isocarboxazid.
Marplan should not be administered to any patient with a confirmed or suspected cerebrovascular defect or to any patient with cardiovascular disease or hypertension.
Marplan should not be used in the presence of pheochromocytoma, as such tumors secrete pressor substances whose metabolism may be inhibited by Marplan.
Marplan should not be used in patients with a history of liver disease, or in those with abnormal liver function tests.
Marplan should not be used in patients with severe impairment of renal function.
Contraindicated MAOI-Other Drug Combinations
Other AlAOIInhibitors Or With Dibenzazepine-Relateci Entities
Marplan should not be administered together with, or in close proximity to, other MAO inhibitors or dibenzazepine-related entities. Hypertensive crises, severe convulsive seizures, coma, or circulatory collapse may occur in patients receiving such combinations.
In patients being transferred to Marplan from another MAO inhibitor or from a dibenzazepine-related entity, a medication-free interval of at least I week should be allowed, after which Marplan therapy should be started using half the normal starting dosage for at least the first week of therapy. Similarly, at least 1 week should elapse between the discontinuation of Marplan and initiation of another MAO inhibitor or dibenzazepine-related entity, or the readministration of Marplan. The following list includes some other MAO inhibitors, dibenzazepine-related entities, and tricyclic antidepressants.
|Generic Name||Trademark (Manufacturer)|
|Other MAO Inhibitors|
|Furazolidone||Furoxone® (Roberts Laboratories)|
|Pargyline HCL||Eutonyl® (Abbott Laboratories)|
|Pargyline HCL and methyclothiazide||Eutron® (Abbott Laboratories)|
|Phenelzine sulfate||Nardil® (Parke-Davis)|
|Procarbazine||Matulane® (Roche Laboratories)|
|Tranylcypromine sulfate||Parnate® (SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals)|
|Dibenzazepine-Related and Other Tricyclics|
|Amitriptyline HCL||Elavil® (Zeneca)|
|Endep® (Roche Products)|
|Perphenazine and amitriptyline HCL||Etrafon® (Schering)|
|Triavil® (Merck Sharp & Dohme)|
|Clomipramine hydrochloride||Anafranil® (Novartis)|
|Desipramine HCL||Norpramin® (Hoechst Marion Roussel)|
|Pertofrane® (Rhone-Poulenc Rorer Pharmaceuticals)|
|Imipramine HCL||Janimine® (Abbott Laboratories)|
|Nortriptyline HCL||Aventyl® (Eli Lilly & Co.)|
|Protripyline HCL||Vivactil® (Merck Sharp & Dohme)|
|Doxepin HCL||Adapiti® (Fisons)|
|Cyclobenzaprine HCL||Flexeril® (Merck Sharp & Dohme)|
|Maprotiline HCL||Ludiomil® (Novartis)|
|Trimipramine maleate||Surmontil® (Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories)|
The concurrent administration of a MAO inhibitor and buproprion hydrochloride (NVellbutrin®, and Zyban®, Glaxo Wellcome) is contraindicated. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAO inhibitor and initiation of treatment with buproprion hydrochloride.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Marplan should not be administered in combination with any SSRI. There have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal, reactions (including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation and confusion progressing to delirium and coma) in patients receiving fluoxetine (Prozac®, Lilly) in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and in patients who have recently discontinued fluoxetine and are then started on a MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Fluoxetine and other SSRIs should therefore not be used in combination with Marplan, or within 14 days of discontinuing therapy with Marplan. As fluoxetine and its major metabolite have veiy long elimination half-lives, at least 5 weeks should be allowed after stopping fluoxetine before starting Marplan. At least 2 weeks should be allowed after stopping sertraline (Zoloft®, Pfizer) or paroxetine (Paxil®, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals) before starting Marplan. In addition, there should be an interval of least 10 days between discontinuation of Marplan and initiation or fluoxetine or other SSRIs.
Marplan should not be used in combination with buspirone HCL (Buspar®, Bristol Myers Squibb); several cases of elevated blood pressure have been reported in patients taking MAO inhibitors who were then given buspirone IICL. At least 10 days should elapse between the discontinuation of Marplan and the institution of buspirone HCL. Serious reactions may also occur when MAO inhibitors are given with serotoninergic drugs (e.g., dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopratn, venlafaxine).
Marplan should not be administered in combination with sympathomimetics, including amphetamines, or with over-the-counter drugs such as cold, hay fever, or weight-reducing preparations that contain vasoconstrictors.
During Marplan therapy, it appears that some patients are particularly vulnerable to the effects of sympathomimetics when the activity of metabolizing enzymes is inhibited. Use of sympathomimetics and compounds such as guanethidine, methyldopa, methylphenidate, reserpine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylalanine, dopamine, levodopa, tyrosine, and tryptophan with Marplan may precipitate hypertension, headache, and related symptoms. The combination of MAO inhibitors and tryptophan has been reported to cause behavioral and neurologic symptoms, including disorientation, confusion, amnesia, delirium, agitation, hypomanic signs, ataxia, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, shivering, ocular oscillations, and Babinski signs.
Meperidine should not be used concomitantly with MAO inhibitors or within 2 or 3 weeks following MAO therapy. Serious reactions have been precipitated with concomitant use, including coma, severe hypertension or hypotension, severe respiratory depression, convulsions, malignant hyperpyrexia, excitation, peripheral vascular collapse, and death. It is thought that these reactions may be mediated by accumulation of 5-HT (serotonin) consequent to MAO inhibition.
Marplan should not be used in combination with dextromethorphan. The combination of MAO inhibitors and dextromethorphan has been reported to cause brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior.
Cheese Or Other Foods With A High Tyramine Content
Hypertensive crises have sometimes occurred during Marplan therapy after ingestion of foods with a high tyramine content. In general, patients should avoid protein foods in which aging or protein breakdown is used to increase flavor. In particular, patients should be instructed not to take foods such as cheese (particularly strong or aged varieties), sour cream, Chianti wine, sherry, beer (including non-alcoholic beer), liqueurs, pickled herring, anchovies, caviar, liver, canned figs, raisins, bananas or avocados (particularly if overripe), chocolate, soy sauce, sauerkraut, the pods of broad beans (fava beans), yeast extracts, yogurt, meat extracts, meat prepared with tenderizers, or dry sausage.
Patients taking Marplan should not undergo elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Also, they should not be given cocaine or local anesthesia containing sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors. The possible combined hypotensive effects of Marplan and spinal anesthesia should be kept in mind. Marplan should be discontinued at least 10 days before elective surgery.
Marplan should not be used in combination with some central nervous system depressants, such as narcotics, barbiturates, or alcohol.
Marplan should not be used in combination with antihypertensive agents, including thiazide diuretics. A marked potentiating effect on these drugs has been reported, resulting in hypotension.
Excessive use of caffeine in any form should be avoided in patients receiving Marplan.
Warnings To Physicians
Clinical Worsening And Suicide Risk
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a longstanding concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials of nine antidepressant drugs (SSRIs) and others) in children and adolescents with MDD, Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients 'for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drugplacebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.
|Age Range||Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality Per 1000 Patients Treated|
|Increases Compared to Placebo|
|< 18||14 additional cases|
|18-24||5 additional cases|
|Decreases Compared to Placebo|
|25-64||1 fewer case|
|≥ 65||6 fewer cases|
No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a casual link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms.
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence if suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for MARPLAN should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose
Screening Patients For Bipolar Disorder
A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of these symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that MARPLAN is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/22/2016
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