"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today the Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) final rule, an important piece of the agency's overall strategy to promote the judicious use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. This strategy will"...
Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cefepime, Cephalosporins, Penicillins, or Other Drugs
Before therapy with MAXIPIME for Injection is instituted, careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cefepime, cephalosporins, penicillins, or other drugs. Exercise caution if this product is to be given to penicillin-sensitive patients because cross-hypersensitivity among beta-lactam antibiotics has been clearly documented and may occur in up to 10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. If an allergic reaction to MAXIPIME occurs, discontinue the drug.
Use in Patients with Renal Impairment
In patients with creatinine clearance less than or equal to 60 mL/min, adjust the dose of MAXIPIME (cefepime hydrochloride) to compensate for the slower rate of renal elimination [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Because high and prolonged serum cefepime concentrations can occur from usual dosages in patients with renal impairment, the cefepime dosage should be reduced when it is administered to such patients. Continued dosage should be determined by degree of renal impairment, severity of infection, and susceptibility of the causative organisms.
During postmarketing surveillance, serious adverse reactions have been reported including life-threatening or fatal occurrences of the following: encephalopathy (disturbance of consciousness including confusion, hallucinations, stupor, and coma), myoclonus, seizures, and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Postmarketing Experience). Most cases occurred in patients with renal impairment who did not receive appropriate dosage adjustment. However, some cases of neurotoxicity occurred in patients receiving a dosage adjustment appropriate for their degree of renal impairment. In the majority of cases, symptoms of neurotoxicity were reversible and resolved after discontinuation of cefepime and/or after hemodialysis. If neurotoxicity associated with cefepime therapy occurs, consider discontinuing cefepime or making appropriate dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment.
Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including MAXIPIME, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Prescribing MAXIPIME in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
As with other antimicrobials, prolonged use of MAXIPIME may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient's condition is essential. Should superinfection occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Many cephalosporins, including cefepime, have been associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk, and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated.
Positive direct Coombs' tests have been reported during treatment with MAXIPIME. In hematologic studies or in transfusion cross-matching procedures when antiglobulin tests are performed on the minor side or in Coombs' testing of newborns whose mothers have received cephalosporin antibiotics before parturition, it should be recognized that a positive Coombs' test may be due to the drug.
MAXIPIME (cefepime hydrochloride) should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Arginine has been shown to alter glucose metabolism and elevate serum potassium transiently when administered at 33 times the amount provided by the maximum recommended human dose of MAXIPIME. The effect of lower doses is not presently known.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No animal carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with cefepime. In chromosomal aberration studies, cefepime was positive for clastogenicity in primary human lymphocytes, but negative in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In other in vitro assays (bacterial and mammalian cell mutation, DNA repair in primary rat hepatocytes, and sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes), cefepime was negative for genotoxic effects. Moreover, in vivo assessments of cefepime in mice (2 chromosomal aberration and 2 micronucleus studies) were negative for clastogenicity. No untoward effects on fertility were observed in rats when cefepime was administered subcutaneously at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the recommended maximum human dose calculated on a mg/m²basis).
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
Cefepime was not teratogenic or embryocidal when administered during the period of organogenesis to rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the recommended maximum human dose calculated on a mg/m²basis) or to mice at doses up to 1200 mg/kg (approximately equal to the recommended maximum human dose calculated on a mg/m²basis) or to rabbits at a dose level of 100 mg/kg (0.3 times the recommended maximum human dose calculated on a mg/m²basis).
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies of cefepime use in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Cefepime is excreted in human breast milk in very low concentrations (0.5 mcg/mL). Caution should be exercised when cefepime is administered to a nursing woman.
Labor and Delivery
Cefepime has not been studied for use during labor and delivery. Treatment should only be given if clearly indicated.
The safety and effectiveness of cefepime in the treatment of uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis), uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, pneumonia, and as empiric therapy for febrile neutropenic patients have been established in the age groups 2 months up to 16 years. Use of MAXIPIME in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of cefepime in adults with additional pharmacokinetic and safety data from pediatric trials (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 months have not been established. There are insufficient clinical data to support the use of MAXIPIME in pediatric patients under 2 months of age or for the treatment of serious infections in the pediatric population where the suspected or proven pathogen is Haemophilus influenzae type b.
IN THOSE PATIENTS IN WHOM MENINGEAL SEEDING FROM A DISTANT INFECTION SITE OR IN WHOM MENINGITIS IS SUSPECTED OR DOCUMENTED, AN ALTERNATE AGENT WITH DEMONSTRATED CLINICAL EFFICACY IN THIS SETTING SHOULD BE USED.
Of the more than 6400 adults treated with MAXIPIME in clinical studies, 35% were 65 years or older while 16% were 75 years or older. When geriatric patients received the usual recommended adult dose, clinical efficacy and safety were comparable to clinical efficacy and safety in nongeriatric adult patients.
Serious adverse events have occurred in geriatric patients with renal insufficiency given unadjusted doses of cefepime, including life-threatening or fatal occurrences of the following: encephalopathy, myoclonus, and seizures. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/20/2012
Additional Maxipime Information
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