Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Measles facts
- What is measles?
- What is rubeola?
- What is rubella?
- What are other names for measles?
- What is the history of measles?
- What causes measles?
- How is measles spread?
- How does one become immune to measles?
- Who is at risk for getting measles?
- Is measles deadly?
- What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
- If I am exposed, how long does it take to develop symptoms and signs?
- What are measles symptoms and signs?
- What are the complications seen with measles?
- What is atypical measles?
- What is modified measles?
- How is the diagnosis of measles made?
- If it is not measles, what else could it be?
- What should I do if I have been exposed to measles?
- Is there any treatment for measles after symptoms and signs develop?
- If measles only rarely occurs in the United States, why should I get vaccinated?
- Do I need to be revaccinated against measles if I am traveling to Europe?
- What is the prognosis for measles?
- How can I prevent contracting measles?
- Is there any truth to the fear of getting autism from vaccines?
- Who should not receive measles vaccinations?
- If a child has an egg allergy, can they still receive the measles vaccine?
- What adverse reactions can occur to the measles vaccination?
- Who should be revaccinated against measles?
- Where can I find more information about measles?
What adverse reactions can occur with the measles vaccination?
Adverse reactions to measles vaccination (as part of the MMR) include fever (5%-15%), rash (5%), joint aches (5%), and low platelet count (thrombocytopenia; one instance per 30,000 doses). In adult women, up to 25% will suffer joint pain that is due to the rubella component of the vaccine. The fever usually occurs seven to 12 days after the vaccination, and the rash occurs seven to 10 days after vaccination.
Who should be revaccinated against measles?
The following group of people should be considered unvaccinated and should receive at least one dose of vaccine:
- People vaccinated before their first birthday should be revaccinated.
- Anyone known to have been vaccinated with the killed measles vaccine (KMV) should be revaccinated.
- Anyone vaccinated with KMV who received their dose of live measles vaccine with four months of their last dose of vaccine should be revaccinated.
- Anyone vaccinated before 1968 in whom it is not known if the vaccine was KMV or not should be revaccinated.
Where can I find more information about measles?
(Rubeola)," U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Chapter 7: "Measles," VPD Surveillance Manual
"Measles," World Health Organization
"WHO Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Monitoring System," World Health Organization
Handouts: Clinic Resources, Immunization Action Coalition
American Academy of Pediatrics. "Measles." Red Book: 2006 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed. Ed. Pickering, L.K. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.
Perry, R.T., and N.A. Halsey. "The Clinical Significance of Measles: A review." J Infect Dis 189 (2004): S4–16.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Measles." Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 4th ed. 2008. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt07-measles.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella -- Vaccine Use and Strategies for Elimination of Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Control of Mumps: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)." MMWR 47 (No. RR-8) 1998: 1–57.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Notes from the Field: Measles Transmission Associated With International Air Travel -- Massachusetts and New York, July -- August 2010." MMWR 59.33 Aug. 2010: 1073.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Use of Combination Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)." MMWR 59(RR03) 2010: 1-12.
World Health Organization. "Fifty-Sixth World Health Assembly. Agenda item 14.7. Reducing Global Measles Mortality." Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003. <http://www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA56/
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