Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Measles facts
- What is measles? What does measles look like?
- What is rubeola? What is rubella? What are other names for measles?
- What is the history of measles?
- What causes measles? How is measles spread?
- How does one become immune to measles?
- Who is at risk for getting measles?
- Is measles deadly?
- What are measles symptoms and signs?
- What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
- What is the incubation period for measles?
- What complications are seen with measles?
- What is atypical measles?
- What is modified measles?
- How is the diagnosis of measles made?
- What should someone do if he or she has been exposed to measles?
- If it is not measles, what else could it be?
- Is there any treatment for measles after symptoms and signs develop?
- What is the prognosis for measles?
- Is it possible to prevent measles with a vaccine? How effective is the measles vaccine?
- Why should people get vaccinated against measles?
- Is there any truth to the fear of getting autism from the MMR or MMRV?
- Who should not receive measles vaccinations?
- Do people need to be revaccinated against measles if they are traveling to Europe?
- What adverse reactions or side effects can occur with the measles vaccination?
- If a child has an egg allergy, can they still receive the measles vaccine?
- Who should be revaccinated against measles?
- What is herd immunity? Why should people care if others choose not to be vaccinated?
- Can the measles virus be used to cure cancer?
- Where can I find more information about measles?
What are measles symptoms and signs?
A typical case of measles actually starts with a
- runny nose,
- hacking cough,
- red eyes.
After two to four days of these symptoms, the patient may develop spots within the mouth called Koplik's spots. These spots look like little grains of white sand surrounded by a red ring and are usually found inside the cheek toward the back of the mouth (opposite the first and second upper molars).
The skin rash (also known as an exanthem or exanthema) appears three to five days after the onset of the initial symptoms (fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes). The rash is a flat to slightly raised (maculopapular) red rash that usually last five to six days. It begins at the hairline and then progresses to the face and upper neck. Over the next two to three days, the rash progresses downward to cover the entire body, including the hands and feet. The rash has mostly distinct lesions, but some may overlap (become confluent). Initially, these lesions will turn white when you press on them (blanch). After three to four days, they no longer will blanch. As the rash begins to fade, there will often be a fine flaking of the skin (desquamation). The rash fades in the same order that it appears.
The fever that occurs with measles is called a stepwise fever. The patient starts with a mild fever that progressively gets higher. Fevers often reach temperatures greater than 103 F (39.4 C).
Although not as common as other symptoms, some patients may have a sore throat.
What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
If a woman contracts measles while she is pregnant, she may have a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or a preterm delivery. There appears to be no risk of having birth defects (unlike an infection with the rubella virus, known as German measles).
What is the incubation period for measles?
The typical time from exposure to a person infected with measles to development of the initial symptoms (incubation period) is 10-12 days (the range is seven to 21 days). The rash occurs a few days after the initial symptoms (ranges from seven to 18 days from exposure).
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