Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Menopause facts
- What is menopause?
- At what age does a woman typically reach menopause?
- What conditions can affect the timing of menopause?
- What are the symptoms of menopause?
- What are the complications and effects of menopause on chronic medical conditions?
- Are hormone levels or other blood tests helpful in detecting menopause?
- What are the treatment options for the symptoms of menopause?
- Hormone therapy for menopause
- Other medical therapies for menopause
- Alternative therapies for menopause
- Non-hormone therapies for menopause
- Lifestyle factors in managing menopause symptoms
- Menopause Quiz
- Menopause and Perimenopause Slideshow
- Osteoporosis Slideshow
- Menopause FAQs
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Non-pharmaceutical therapies for menopause
In women for whom oral or vaginal estrogens are deemed inappropriate, such as breast cancer survivors, or women who do not wish to take oral or vaginal estrogen, there are a variety of over-the-counter vaginal lubricants. However, they are probably not as effective in relieving vaginal symptoms as replacing the estrogen deficiency with oral or local estrogen.
Lifestyle factors in controlling the symptoms and complications of menopause
Many of the symptoms of menopause and the medical complications that may develop in postmenopausal women can be lessened or even avoided by taking steps to lead a healthy lifestyle. Regular exercise can help protect against cardiovascular disease as well as osteoporosis, and exercise also has known mental health benefits. Proper nutrition and smoking cessation will also reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.
Newton KM; Reed SD; LaCroix AZ et al. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Dec 19;145(12):869-79.
Rossouw JE; Anderson GL; Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.
Utian WH; Archer DF; Bachmann GA, et al. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4 Pt 1):584-602.
Previous contributing authors and editors:
Carolyn Janet Crandall, MD, FACP and Dennis Lee, MD
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