Menstrual Cramps (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What are menstrual cramps?
- How common are menstrual cramps?
- What is dysmenorrhea?
- What causes menstrual cramps?
- Why are some cramps so painful?
- Can menstrual cramps be measured?
- What other factors influence menstrual cramps?
- What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps?
- How are menstrual cramps diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for common menstrual cramps (primary dysmenorrhea)?
- What if the cramps are very severe?
- Are there surgical solutions?
- What is the treatment of secondary dysmenorrhea?
- What is the long-term outlook (prognosis) for menstrual cramps?
- Menstrual Cramps At A Glance
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
What if the cramps are very severe?
If a woman's menstrual cramps are too severe to be managed by these strategies, her doctor might prescribe low doses of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) containing estrogen and progestin in a regular or extended cycle. This type of approach can prevent ovulation (the monthly release of an egg) and reduce the production of prostaglandins which, in turn, reduces the severity of cramping and causes a light menstrual flow.
Use of an IUD that releases small amounts of the progestin levonorgestrel directly into the uterine cavity, has been associated with a 50 percent reduction in the prevalence of menstrual cramps. In contrast, IUDs that do not contain hormones, such as those containing copper, may worsen menstrual cramps.
Are there surgical solutions?
In the past, many women with menstrual cramps had an operation known as a D & C (dilation and curettage) to remove some of the lining of the uterus. This procedure is also sometimes used as a diagnostic measure to detect cancer or precancerous conditions of the uterine lining. Some women even resorted to the ultimate solution to menstrual problems by having a hysterectomy, surgery that removes the entire uterus.
Today, when a woman has abnormally heavy and painful uterine bleeding, her doctor may recommend endometrial ablation, a procedure in which the lining of the uterus is burned away or vaporized using a heat-generating device.
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