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Methadone Hydrochloride

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Methadone Hydrochloride

METHADONE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS USP (methadone)
5 mg, 10 mg

Deaths, cardiac and respiratory, have been reported during initiation and conversion of pain patients to methadone treatment from treatment with other opioid agonists. It is critical to understand the pharmacokinetics of methadone when converting patients from other opioids (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Particular vigilance is necessary during treatment initiation, during conversion from one opioid to another, and during dose titration.

Respiratory depression is the chief hazard associated with methadone hydrochloride administration. Methadone's peak respiratory depressant effects typically occur later, and persist longer than its peak analgesic effects, particularly in the early dosing period. These characteristics can contribute to cases of iatrogenic overdose, particularly during treatment initiation and dose titration.

In addition, cases of QT interval prolongation and serious arrhythmia (torsades de pointes) have been observed during treatment with methadone. Most cases involve patients being treated for pain with large, multiple daily doses of methadone, although cases have been reported in patients receiving doses commonly used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction.

Methadone treatment for analgesic therapy in patients with acute or chronic pain should only be initiated if the potential analgesic or palliative care benefit of treatment with methadone is considered and outweighs the risks.

Conditions for Distribution and Use of Methadone Products for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 42, Sec 8

Methadone products when used for the treatment of opioid addiction in detoxification or maintenance programs, shall be dispensed only by opioid treatment programs (and agencies, practitioners or institutions by formal agreement with the program sponsor) certified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and approved by the designated state authority. Certified treatment programs shall dispense and use methadone in oral form only and according to the treatment requirements stipulated in the Federal Opioid Treatment Standards (42 CFR 8.12). See below for important regulatory exceptions to the general requirement for certification to provide opioid agonist treatment.

Failure to abide by the requirements in these regulations may result in criminal prosecution, seizure of the drug supply, revocation of the program approval, and injunction precluding operation of the program.

Regulatory Exceptions To The General Requirement For Certification To Provide Opioid Agonist Treatment:

  1. During inpatient care, when the patient was admitted for any condition other than concurrent opioid addiction (pursuant to 21 CFR 1306.07(c)), to facilitate the treatment of the primary admitting diagnosis.
  2. During an emergency period of no longer than 3 days while definitive care for the addiction is being sought in an appropriately licensed facility (pursuant to 21 CFR 1306.07(b)).

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets USP (methadone) for oral administration, each contain 5 mg or 10 mg of methadone hydrochloride.

Methadone hydrochloride (methadone) is a white, crystalline material that is water-soluble.

Methadone hydrochloride (methadone) is chemically described as 6-(dimethylamino)-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanone hydrochloride. Methadone hydrochloride (methadone) has a melting point of 235°C, and a pKa of 8.25 in water at 20°C. Its octanol/water partition coefficient at pH 7.4 is 117. A solution (1:100) in water has a pH between 4.5 and 6.5.

It has the following structural formula:

Methadone Hydrochloride Structural Formula Illustration

C21H27NO•HCl.......................MW = 345.91

The tablets also contain lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and silicon dioxide.

What are the possible side effects of methadone (Diskets, Dolophine, Methadose)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • shallow breathing;
  • hallucinations or confusion;
  • chest pain, dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeat; or
  • trouble breathing, feeling light-headed, or fainting.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • feeling anxious, nervous, or restless;
  • sleep problems...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Methadone Hydrochloride »

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/2/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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