"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved oxymetazoline hydrochloride 1% cream (Rhofade, Allergan) for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea in adults.
Persistent facial erythe"...
Peripheral neuropathy, characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity has been reported in patients treated with systemic metronidazole. Although not evident in clinical trials for topical metronidazole, peripheral neuropathy has been reported with the post approval use. The appearance of abnormal neurologic signs should prompt immediate reevaluation of METROGEL therapy. Metronidazole should be administered with caution to patients with central nervous system diseases.
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole; use with care in patients with evidence of, or history of, blood dyscrasia.
Topical metronidazole has been reported to cause tearing of the eyes. Avoid contact with the eyes.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Metronidazole has shown evidence of carcinogenic activity in a number of studies involving chronic, oral administration in mice and rats, but not in studies involving hamsters.
In several long-term studies in mice, oral doses of approximately 225 mg/m²/day or greater (approximately 37 times the human topical dose on a mg/m² basis) were associated with an increase in pulmonary tumors and lymphomas. Several long-term oral studies in the rat have shown statistically significant increases in mammary and hepatic tumors at doses > 885 mg/m²/day (144 times the human dose).
Metronidazole has shown evidence of mutagenic activity in several in vitro bacterial assay systems. In addition, a dose-related increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in mice after intraperitoneal injections. An increase in chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes was reported in patients with Crohn's disease who were treated with 200 to 1200 mg/day of metronidazole for 1 to 24 months. However, in another study, no increase in chromosomal aberrations in circulating lymphocytes was observed in patients with Crohn's disease treated with the drug for 8 months.
In one published study, using albino hairless mice, intraperitoneal administration of metronidazole at a dose of 45 mg/m²/day (approximately 7 times the human topical dose on a mg/m² basis) was associated with an increase in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. Neither dermal carcinogenicity nor photocarcinogenicity studies have been performed with METROGEL or any marketed metronidazole formulations.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with the use of METROGEL in pregnant women. Metronidazole crosses the placental barrier and enters the fetal circulation rapidly. No fetotoxicity was observed after oral administration of metronidazole in rats or mice at 200 and 20 times, respectively, the expected clinical dose. However, oral metronidazole has shown carcinogenic activity in rodents. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, METROGEL (metronidazole) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
After oral administration, metronidazole is secreted in breast milk in concentrations similar to those found in the plasma. Even though blood levels taken after topical metronidazole application are significantly lower than those achieved after oral metronidazole a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother and the risk to the infant.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Sixty-six subjects aged 65 years and older were treated with metronidazole gel, 1% in the clinical study. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/15/2016
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